Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information
Laetrile can be administered orally as a pill, or it can be given by injection (intravenous or intramuscular). It is commonly given intravenously over a period of time followed by oral maintenance therapy. The incidence of cyanide poisoning is much higher when laetrile is taken orally  Reviewed in [22,23] because intestinal bacteria and some commonly eaten plants contain enzymes (beta-glucosidases) that activate the release of cyanide after laetrile has been ingested. Reviewed in [17,22] Relatively little breakdown to yield cyanide occurs when laetrile is injected. Reviewed in [7,22] Administration schedules and the length of treatment in animal models and humans vary widely.
Howard-Ruben J, Miller NJ: Unproven methods of cancer management. Part II: Current trends and implications for patient care. Oncol Nurs Forum 11 (1): 67-73, 1984 Jan-Feb.
Curt GA: Unsound methods of cancer treatment. Princ Pract Oncol Updates 4 (12): 1-10, 1990.
Dorr RT, Paxinos J: The current status of laetrile. Ann Intern Med 89 (3): 389-97, 1978.
Calabrese EJ: Possible adverse side effects from treatment with laetrile. Med Hypotheses 5 (9): 1045-9, 1979.
The laetrile controversy. In: Moss RW: The Cancer Industry: The Classic Expose on the Cancer Establishment. Brooklyn, NY: First Equinox Press, 1996, pp 131-52.
Laetrile at Sloan-Kettering: a case study. In: Moss RW: The Cancer Industry: The Classic Expose on the Cancer Establishment. Brooklyn, NY: First Equinox Press, 1996, pp 153-86.
Lerner IJ: Laetrile: a lesson in cancer quackery. CA Cancer J Clin 31 (2): 91-5, 1981 Mar-Apr.
Ellison NM, Byar DP, Newell GR: Special report on Laetrile: the NCI Laetrile Review. Results of the National Cancer Institute's retrospective Laetrile analysis. N Engl J Med 299 (10): 549-52, 1978.
Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Rubin J, et al.: A clinical trial of amygdalin (Laetrile) in the treatment of human cancer. N Engl J Med 306 (4): 201-6, 1982.
Ross WE: Unconventional cancer therapy. Compr Ther 11 (9): 37-43, 1985.
Lewis JP: Laetrile. West J Med 127 (1): 55-62, 1977.
Unproven methods of cancer management. Laetrile. CA Cancer J Clin 22 (4): 245-50, 1972 Jul-Aug.
Rosen GM, Shorr RI: Laetrile: end play around the FDA. A review of legal developments. Ann Intern Med 90 (3): 418-23, 1979.
Curran WJ: Law-medicine notes. Laetrile for the terminally ill: Supreme Court stops the nonsense. N Engl J Med 302 (11): 619-21, 1980.
Fenselau C, Pallante S, Batzinger RP, et al.: Mandelonitrile beta-glucuronide: synthesis and characterization. Science 198 (4317): 625-7, 1977.
Chandler RF, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD: Laetrile in perspective. Can Pharm J 117 (11): 517-20, 1984.
Newmark J, Brady RO, Grimley PM, et al.: Amygdalin (Laetrile) and prunasin beta-glucosidases: distribution in germ-free rat and in human tumor tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78 (10): 6513-6, 1981.
Rauws AG, Olling M, Timmerman A: The pharmacokinetics of prunasin, a metabolite of amygdalin. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 19 (8): 851-6, 1982.
Kochi M, Takeuchi S, Mizutani T, et al.: Antitumor activity of benzaldehyde. Cancer Treat Rep 64 (1): 21-3, 1980.
Kochi M, Isono N, Niwayama M, et al.: Antitumor activity of a benzaldehyde derivative. Cancer Treat Rep 69 (5): 533-7, 1985.
Gostomski FE: The effects of amygdalin on the Krebs-2 carcinoma and adult and fetal DUB(ICR) mice. [Abstract] Diss Abstr Int B 39 (5): 2075-B, 1978.
Herbert V: Laetrile: the cult of cyanide. Promoting poison for profit. Am J Clin Nutr 32 (5): 1121-58, 1979.
Viehoever A, Mack H: Bio-chemistry of amygdalin (bitter, cyanogenetic principle from bitter almonds). Am J Pharm 107(Oct): 397-450, 1935.