Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

Table 1. Strains of NDV Tested in Human/Clinical Cancer Studiesa

NDV StrainStrain TypeFormulationSuggested Mechanism(s) of ActionReference Citation(s)
a See text and theNCI Dictionary of Cancer Termsfor additional information and definition of terms.
b Oncolysates are prepared from virus-infected cancer cells; they consist primarily of cellmembranefragments and contain virus proteins and cancer cell proteins.
73-TLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[20]
73-TLyticOncolysate vaccinebStimulation of immune system[11,42,45,60,63,65,67,68,69,70]
UlsterNonlyticInfected tumor-cell vaccineStimulation of immune system[49,50,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,71,72,73]
MTH-68LyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[1,6,61,66]
ItalienLyticOncolysate vaccine/infectious virusStimulation of immune system; cancer cells killed by virus[62,64]
HickmanLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[80]
PV701LyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[59]
HUJLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[81]
La SotaNot specifiedInfected tumor cell vaccineNot specified[82]

References:

  1. Csatary LK, Moss RW, Beuth J, et al.: Beneficial treatment of patients with advanced cancer using a Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H). Anticancer Res 19 (1B): 635-8, 1999 Jan-Feb.
  2. Nelson NJ: Scientific interest in Newcastle disease virus is reviving. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (20): 1708-10, 1999.
  3. Seal BS, King DJ, Sellers HS: The avian response to Newcastle disease virus. Dev Comp Immunol 24 (2-3): 257-68, 2000 Mar-Apr.
  4. Alexander DJ, Allan WH: Newcastle disease virus pathotypes. Avian Pathol 3(4): 269-78, 1974.
  5. Hanson RP: The reemergence of Newcastle disease. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 18 (0): 213-29, 1974.
  6. Csatary LK, Eckhardt S, Bukosza I, et al.: Attenuated veterinary virus vaccine for the treatment of cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 17 (6): 619-27, 1993.
  7. Kenney S, Pagano JS: Viruses as oncolytic agents: a new age for "therapeutic" viruses? J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (16): 1185-6, 1994.
  8. Kirn DH, McCormick F: Replicating viruses as selective cancer therapeutics. Mol Med Today 2 (12): 519-27, 1996.
  9. Lorence RM, Reichard KW, Katubig BB, et al.: Complete regression of human neuroblastoma xenografts in athymic mice after local Newcastle disease virus therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (16): 1228-33, 1994.
  10. Lorence RM, Katubig BB, Reichard KW, et al.: Complete regression of human fibrosarcoma xenografts after local Newcastle disease virus therapy. Cancer Res 54 (23): 6017-21, 1994.
  11. Batliwalla FM, Bateman BA, Serrano D, et al.: A 15-year follow-up of AJCC stage III malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oncolysate and determination of alterations in the CD8 T cell repertoire. Mol Med 4 (12): 783-94, 1998.
  12. Reichard KW, Lorence RM, Cascino CJ, et al.: Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells. J Surg Res 52 (5): 448-53, 1992.
  13. Schirrmacher V, Ahlert T, Pröbstle T, et al.: Immunization with virus-modified tumor cells. Semin Oncol 25 (6): 677-96, 1998.
  14. Moss RW: Alternative pharmacological and biological treatments for cancer: ten promising approaches. J Naturopathic Med 6 (1): 23-32, 1996.
  15. Bar-Eli N, Giloh H, Schlesinger M, et al.: Preferential cytotoxic effect of Newcastle disease virus on lymphoma cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 122 (7): 409-15, 1996.
  16. Tzadok-David Y, Metzkin-Eizenberg M, Zakay-Rones Z: The effect of a mesogenic and a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus strain on Burkitt lymphoma Daudi cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 121 (3): 169-74, 1995.
  17. Lorence RM, Rood PA, Kelley KW: Newcastle disease virus as an antineoplastic agent: induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and augmentation of its cytotoxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 80 (16): 1305-12, 1988.
  18. Schirrmacher V, Haas C, Bonifer R, et al.: Human tumor cell modification by virus infection: an efficient and safe way to produce cancer vaccine with pleiotropic immune stimulatory properties when using Newcastle disease virus. Gene Ther 6 (1): 63-73, 1999.
  19. Zorn U, Dallmann I, Grosse J, et al.: Induction of cytokines and cytotoxicity against tumor cells by Newcastle disease virus. Cancer Biother 9 (3): 225-35, 1994 Fall.
  20. Cassel WA, Garrett RE: Newcastle disease virus as an antineoplastic agent. Cancer 18 (7): 863-8, 1965.
  21. Reichard KW, Lorence RM, Katubig BB, et al.: Retinoic acid enhances killing of neuroblastoma cells by Newcastle disease virus. J Pediatr Surg 28 (10): 1221-5; discussion 1225-6, 1993.
  22. Nemunaitis J: Oncolytic viruses yesterday and today. J Oncol Manag 8 (5): 14-24, 1999.
  23. Phuangsab A, Lorence RM, Reichard KW, et al.: Newcastle disease virus therapy of human tumor xenografts: antitumor effects of local or systemic administration. Cancer Lett 172 (1): 27-36, 2001.
  24. Krishnamurthy S, Takimoto T, Scroggs RA, et al.: Differentially regulated interferon response determines the outcome of Newcastle disease virus infection in normal and tumor cell lines. J Virol 80 (11): 5145-55, 2006.
  25. Fiola C, Peeters B, Fournier P, et al.: Tumor selective replication of Newcastle disease virus: association with defects of tumor cells in antiviral defence. Int J Cancer 119 (2): 328-38, 2006.
  26. Aoki K, Oh-hira M, Hoshino M, et al.: Isolation and characterization of a novel mutant mouse cell line resistant to Newcastle disease virus: constitutive interferon production and enhanced interferon sensitivity. Arch Virol 139 (3-4): 337-50, 1994.
  27. Vigil A, Park MS, Martinez O, et al.: Use of reverse genetics to enhance the oncolytic properties of Newcastle disease virus. Cancer Res 67 (17): 8285-92, 2007.
  28. Schirrmacher V, Ahlert T, Heicappell R, et al.: Successful application of non-oncogenic viruses for antimetastatic cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Rev 5: 19-49, 1986.
  29. Schirrmacher V, Haas C, Bonifer R, et al.: Virus potentiation of tumor vaccine T-cell stimulatory capacity requires cell surface binding but not infection. Clin Cancer Res 3 (7): 1135-48, 1997.
  30. Sinkovics JG, Horvath JC: Newcastle disease virus (NDV): brief history of its oncolytic strains. J Clin Virol 16 (1): 1-15, 2000.
  31. Haas C, Herold-Mende C, Gerhards R, et al.: An effective strategy of human tumor vaccine modification by coupling bispecific costimulatory molecules. Cancer Gene Ther 6 (3): 254-62, 1999 May-Jun.
  32. Haas C, Ertel C, Gerhards R, et al.: Introduction of adhesive and costimulatory immune functions into tumor cells by infection with Newcastle Disease Virus. Int J Oncol 13 (6): 1105-15, 1998.
  33. Eaton MD, Heller JA, Scala AR: Enhancement of lymphoma cell immunogenicity by infection with nononcogenic virus. Cancer Res 33 (12): 3293-8, 1973.
  34. Webb HE, Smith CE: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 1 (7658): 1206-8, 1970.
  35. Beverley PC, Lowenthal RM, Tyrrell DA: Immune responses in mice to tumour challenge after immunization with Newcastle disease virus-infected or x-irradiated tumour cells or cell fractions. Int J Cancer 11 (1): 212-23, 1973.
  36. Schirrmacher V, Griesbach A, Ahlert T: Antitumor effects of Newcastle Disease Virus in vivo: local versus systemic effects. Int J Oncol 18 (5): 945-52, 2001.
  37. Ahlert T, Schirrmacher V: Isolation of a human melanoma adapted Newcastle disease virus mutant with highly selective replication patterns. Cancer Res 50 (18): 5962-8, 1990.
  38. Schirrmacher V, Jurianz K, Roth C, et al.: Tumor stimulator cell modification by infection with Newcastle Disease Virus: analysis of effects and mechanism in MLTC-CML cultures. Int J Oncol 14 (2): 205-15, 1999.
  39. Ravindra PV, Tiwari AK, Ratta B, et al.: Newcastle disease virus-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells is caused by apoptosis. Virus Res 141 (1): 13-20, 2009.
  40. Morse MA: Virus-based therapies for colon cancer. Expert Opin Biol Ther 5 (12): 1627-33, 2005.
  41. Liu TC, Kirn D: Systemic efficacy with oncolytic virus therapeutics: clinical proof-of-concept and future directions. Cancer Res 67 (2): 429-32, 2007.
  42. Cassel WA, Murray DR: A ten-year follow-up on stage II malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 9 (4): 169-71, 1992.
  43. Heicappell R, Schirrmacher V, von Hoegen P, et al.: Prevention of metastatic spread by postoperative immunotherapy with virally modified autologous tumor cells. I. Parameters for optimal therapeutic effects. Int J Cancer 37 (4): 569-77, 1986.
  44. Shoham J, Hirsch R, Zakay-Rones Z, et al.: Augmentation of tumor cell immunogenicity by viruses--an approach to specific immunotherapy of cancer. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul 9 (3): 165-72, 1990.
  45. Zorn U, Duensing S, Langkopf F, et al.: Active specific immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma: cellular and humoral immune responses. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 12 (3): 157-65, 1997.
  46. Plaksin D, Porgador A, Vadai E, et al.: Effective anti-metastatic melanoma vaccination with tumor cells transfected with MHC genes and/or infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Int J Cancer 59 (6): 796-801, 1994.
  47. Bier H, Armonat G, Bier J, et al.: Postoperative active-specific immunotherapy of lymph node micrometastasis in a guinea pig tumor model. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 51 (4): 197-205, 1989.
  48. DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds.: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997.
  49. Liebrich W, Schlag P, Manasterski M, et al.: In vitro and clinical characterisation of a Newcastle disease virus-modified autologous tumour cell vaccine for treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 27 (6): 703-10, 1991.
  50. Ockert D, Schirrmacher V, Beck N, et al.: Newcastle disease virus-infected intact autologous tumor cell vaccine for adjuvant active specific immunotherapy of resected colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2 (1): 21-8, 1996.
  51. Schirrmacher V: Active specific immunotherapy: a new modality of cancer treatment involving the patient's own immune system. Onkologie 16 (5): 290-6, 1993.
  52. Ahlert T, Sauerbrei W, Bastert G, et al.: Tumor-cell number and viability as quality and efficacy parameters of autologous virus-modified cancer vaccines in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 15 (4): 1354-66, 1997.
  53. Ahlert T: Tumor cell vaccination and IL-2 therapy. Hybridoma 12 (5): 549-52, 1993.
  54. Bohle W, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Postoperative active specific immunization in colorectal cancer patients with virus-modified autologous tumor-cell vaccine. First clinical results with tumor-cell vaccines modified with live but avirulent Newcastle disease virus. Cancer 66 (7): 1517-23, 1990.
  55. Lehner B, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Postoperative active specific immunization in curatively resected colorectal cancer patients with a virus-modified autologous tumor cell vaccine. Cancer Immunol Immunother 32 (3): 173-8, 1990.
  56. Pomer S, Schirrmacher V, Thiele R, et al.: Tumor response and 4 year survival data of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with autologous tumor vaccine and subcutaneous r-IL-2 and IFN-alpha2b. Int J Oncol 6: 947-54, 1995.
  57. Schlag P, Manasterski M, Gerneth T, et al.: Active specific immunotherapy with Newcastle-disease-virus-modified autologous tumor cells following resection of liver metastases in colorectal cancer. First evaluation of clinical response of a phase II-trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother 35 (5): 325-30, 1992.
  58. Möbus V, Horn S, Stöck M, et al.: Tumor cell vaccination for gynecological tumors. Hybridoma 12 (5): 543-7, 1993.
  59. Pecora AL, Rizvi N, Cohen GI, et al.: Phase I trial of intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic virus, in patients with advanced solid cancers. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2251-66, 2002.
  60. Cassel WA, Murray DR, Phillips HS: A phase II study on the postsurgical management of Stage II malignant melanoma with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Cancer 52 (5): 856-60, 1983.
  61. Csatary LK: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 2 (7728): 825, 1971.
  62. Mallmann P: Autologous tumor-cell vaccination and lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (LAK-TIL). Hybridoma 12 (5): 559-66, 1993.
  63. Plager C, Bowen JM, Fenoglio C, et al.: Adjuvant immunotherapy of M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) stage III-B malignant melanoma with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 9: A-1091, 281, 1990.
  64. Mallmann P, Eis-Hubinger AM, Krebs D: Lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and autologous tumor vaccine in breast and ovarian cancer. Onkologie 15 (6): 490-6, 1992.
  65. Anton P, Kirchner H, Jonas U, et al.: Cytokines and tumor vaccination. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 11 (5): 315-8, 1996.
  66. Csatary LK, Bakács T: Use of Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H) in a patient with high-grade glioblastoma. JAMA 281 (17): 1588-9, 1999.
  67. Cassel WA, Murras DR, Torbin AH, et al.: Viral oncolysate in the management of malignant melanoma. I. Preparation of the oncolysate and measurement of immunologic responses. Cancer 40 (2): 672-9, 1977.
  68. Murray DR, Cassel WA, Torbin AH, et al.: Viral oncolysate in the management of malignant melanoma. II. Clinical studies. Cancer 40 (2): 680-6, 1977.
  69. Cassel WA, Murray DR: Treatment of stage II malignant melanoma patients with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul 7 (5-6): 351-2, 1988.
  70. Kirchner HH, Anton P, Atzpodien J: Adjuvant treatment of locally advanced renal cancer with autologous virus-modified tumor vaccines. World J Urol 13 (3): 171-3, 1995.
  71. Proebstle TM, Staib G, Kaufmann R, et al.: Autologous active specific immunization (ASI) therapy for metastatic melanoma [abstract from Fifth World Conference on Cancers of the Skin]. Melanoma Res 3: A-133, 35, 1993.
  72. Schirrmacher V: [Anti-tumor vaccination] Zentralbl Chir 125 (Suppl 1): 33-6, 2000.
  73. Pomer S, Thiele R, Staehler G, et al.: [Tumor vaccination in renal cell carcinoma with and without interleukin-2 (IL-2) as adjuvant. A clinical contribution to the development of effective active specific immunization] Urologe A 34 (3): 215-20, 1995.
  74. Schirrmacher V, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Specific immunotherapy of colorectal carcinoma with Newcastle-disease virus-modified autologous tumor cells prepared from resected liver metastasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 690: 364-6, 1993.
  75. Fábián Z, Csatary CM, Szeberényi J, et al.: p53-independent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytotoxicity of a Newcastle disease virus strain in tumor cell lines. J Virol 81 (6): 2817-30, 2007.
  76. Sinkovics J, Horvath J: New developments in the virus therapy of cancer: a historical review. Intervirology 36 (4): 193-214, 1993.
  77. Fábián Z, Töröcsik B, Kiss K, et al.: Induction of apoptosis by a Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H) in PC12 rat phaeochromocytoma cells. Anticancer Res 21 (1A): 125-35, 2001 Jan-Feb.
  78. Schirrmacher V, Bai L, Umansky V, et al.: Newcastle disease virus activates macrophages for anti-tumor activity. Int J Oncol 16 (2): 363-73, 2000.
  79. Schirrmacher V, Heicappell R: Prevention of metastatic spread by postoperative immunotherapy with virally modified autologous tumor cells. II. Establishment of specific systemic anti-tumor immunity. Clin Exp Metastasis 5 (2): 147-56, 1987 Apr-Jun.
  80. Wheelock EF, Dingle JH: Observations on the repeated administration of viruses to a patient with acute leukemia. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 271(13): 645-51, 1964.
  81. Freeman AI, Zakay-Rones Z, Gomori JM, et al.: Phase I/II trial of intravenous NDV-HUJ oncolytic virus in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Mol Ther 13 (1): 221-8, 2006.
  82. Liang W, Wang H, Sun TM, et al.: Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract. World J Gastroenterol 9 (3): 495-8, 2003.
1|2|3|4|5
1|2|3|4|5

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Building a Support System
Blog
cancer fighting foods
SLIDESHOW
 
precancerous lesions slideshow
SLIDESHOW
quit smoking tips
SLIDESHOW
 
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
Blog
what is your cancer risk
HEALTH CHECK
 
colorectal cancer treatment advances
Video
breast cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
prostate cancer overview
SLIDESHOW
lung cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
Actor Michael Douglas
Article