Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

Table 1. Strains of NDV Tested in Human/Clinical Cancer Studiesa

NDV StrainStrain TypeFormulationSuggested Mechanism(s) of ActionReference Citation(s)
a See text and theNCI Dictionary of Cancer Termsfor additional information and definition of terms.
b Oncolysates are prepared from virus-infected cancer cells; they consist primarily of cellmembranefragments and contain virus proteins and cancer cell proteins.
73-TLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[20]
73-TLyticOncolysate vaccinebStimulation of immune system[11,42,45,60,63,65,67,68,69,70]
UlsterNonlyticInfected tumor-cell vaccineStimulation of immune system[49,50,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,71,72,73]
MTH-68LyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[1,6,61,66]
ItalienLyticOncolysate vaccine/infectious virusStimulation of immune system; cancer cells killed by virus[62,64]
HickmanLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[80]
PV701LyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[59]
HUJLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[81]
La SotaNot specifiedInfected tumor cell vaccineNot specified[82]


  1. Csatary LK, Moss RW, Beuth J, et al.: Beneficial treatment of patients with advanced cancer using a Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H). Anticancer Res 19 (1B): 635-8, 1999 Jan-Feb.
  2. Nelson NJ: Scientific interest in Newcastle disease virus is reviving. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (20): 1708-10, 1999.
  3. Seal BS, King DJ, Sellers HS: The avian response to Newcastle disease virus. Dev Comp Immunol 24 (2-3): 257-68, 2000 Mar-Apr.
  4. Alexander DJ, Allan WH: Newcastle disease virus pathotypes. Avian Pathol 3(4): 269-78, 1974.
  5. Hanson RP: The reemergence of Newcastle disease. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 18 (0): 213-29, 1974.
  6. Csatary LK, Eckhardt S, Bukosza I, et al.: Attenuated veterinary virus vaccine for the treatment of cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 17 (6): 619-27, 1993.
  7. Kenney S, Pagano JS: Viruses as oncolytic agents: a new age for "therapeutic" viruses? J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (16): 1185-6, 1994.
  8. Kirn DH, McCormick F: Replicating viruses as selective cancer therapeutics. Mol Med Today 2 (12): 519-27, 1996.
  9. Lorence RM, Reichard KW, Katubig BB, et al.: Complete regression of human neuroblastoma xenografts in athymic mice after local Newcastle disease virus therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (16): 1228-33, 1994.
  10. Lorence RM, Katubig BB, Reichard KW, et al.: Complete regression of human fibrosarcoma xenografts after local Newcastle disease virus therapy. Cancer Res 54 (23): 6017-21, 1994.
  11. Batliwalla FM, Bateman BA, Serrano D, et al.: A 15-year follow-up of AJCC stage III malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oncolysate and determination of alterations in the CD8 T cell repertoire. Mol Med 4 (12): 783-94, 1998.
  12. Reichard KW, Lorence RM, Cascino CJ, et al.: Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells. J Surg Res 52 (5): 448-53, 1992.
  13. Schirrmacher V, Ahlert T, Pröbstle T, et al.: Immunization with virus-modified tumor cells. Semin Oncol 25 (6): 677-96, 1998.
  14. Moss RW: Alternative pharmacological and biological treatments for cancer: ten promising approaches. J Naturopathic Med 6 (1): 23-32, 1996.
  15. Bar-Eli N, Giloh H, Schlesinger M, et al.: Preferential cytotoxic effect of Newcastle disease virus on lymphoma cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 122 (7): 409-15, 1996.
  16. Tzadok-David Y, Metzkin-Eizenberg M, Zakay-Rones Z: The effect of a mesogenic and a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus strain on Burkitt lymphoma Daudi cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 121 (3): 169-74, 1995.
  17. Lorence RM, Rood PA, Kelley KW: Newcastle disease virus as an antineoplastic agent: induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and augmentation of its cytotoxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 80 (16): 1305-12, 1988.
  18. Schirrmacher V, Haas C, Bonifer R, et al.: Human tumor cell modification by virus infection: an efficient and safe way to produce cancer vaccine with pleiotropic immune stimulatory properties when using Newcastle disease virus. Gene Ther 6 (1): 63-73, 1999.
  19. Zorn U, Dallmann I, Grosse J, et al.: Induction of cytokines and cytotoxicity against tumor cells by Newcastle disease virus. Cancer Biother 9 (3): 225-35, 1994 Fall.
  20. Cassel WA, Garrett RE: Newcastle disease virus as an antineoplastic agent. Cancer 18 (7): 863-8, 1965.
  21. Reichard KW, Lorence RM, Katubig BB, et al.: Retinoic acid enhances killing of neuroblastoma cells by Newcastle disease virus. J Pediatr Surg 28 (10): 1221-5; discussion 1225-6, 1993.
  22. Nemunaitis J: Oncolytic viruses yesterday and today. J Oncol Manag 8 (5): 14-24, 1999.
  23. Phuangsab A, Lorence RM, Reichard KW, et al.: Newcastle disease virus therapy of human tumor xenografts: antitumor effects of local or systemic administration. Cancer Lett 172 (1): 27-36, 2001.
  24. Krishnamurthy S, Takimoto T, Scroggs RA, et al.: Differentially regulated interferon response determines the outcome of Newcastle disease virus infection in normal and tumor cell lines. J Virol 80 (11): 5145-55, 2006.
  25. Fiola C, Peeters B, Fournier P, et al.: Tumor selective replication of Newcastle disease virus: association with defects of tumor cells in antiviral defence. Int J Cancer 119 (2): 328-38, 2006.
  26. Aoki K, Oh-hira M, Hoshino M, et al.: Isolation and characterization of a novel mutant mouse cell line resistant to Newcastle disease virus: constitutive interferon production and enhanced interferon sensitivity. Arch Virol 139 (3-4): 337-50, 1994.
  27. Vigil A, Park MS, Martinez O, et al.: Use of reverse genetics to enhance the oncolytic properties of Newcastle disease virus. Cancer Res 67 (17): 8285-92, 2007.
  28. Schirrmacher V, Ahlert T, Heicappell R, et al.: Successful application of non-oncogenic viruses for antimetastatic cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Rev 5: 19-49, 1986.
  29. Schirrmacher V, Haas C, Bonifer R, et al.: Virus potentiation of tumor vaccine T-cell stimulatory capacity requires cell surface binding but not infection. Clin Cancer Res 3 (7): 1135-48, 1997.
  30. Sinkovics JG, Horvath JC: Newcastle disease virus (NDV): brief history of its oncolytic strains. J Clin Virol 16 (1): 1-15, 2000.
  31. Haas C, Herold-Mende C, Gerhards R, et al.: An effective strategy of human tumor vaccine modification by coupling bispecific costimulatory molecules. Cancer Gene Ther 6 (3): 254-62, 1999 May-Jun.
  32. Haas C, Ertel C, Gerhards R, et al.: Introduction of adhesive and costimulatory immune functions into tumor cells by infection with Newcastle Disease Virus. Int J Oncol 13 (6): 1105-15, 1998.
  33. Eaton MD, Heller JA, Scala AR: Enhancement of lymphoma cell immunogenicity by infection with nononcogenic virus. Cancer Res 33 (12): 3293-8, 1973.
  34. Webb HE, Smith CE: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 1 (7658): 1206-8, 1970.
  35. Beverley PC, Lowenthal RM, Tyrrell DA: Immune responses in mice to tumour challenge after immunization with Newcastle disease virus-infected or x-irradiated tumour cells or cell fractions. Int J Cancer 11 (1): 212-23, 1973.
  36. Schirrmacher V, Griesbach A, Ahlert T: Antitumor effects of Newcastle Disease Virus in vivo: local versus systemic effects. Int J Oncol 18 (5): 945-52, 2001.
  37. Ahlert T, Schirrmacher V: Isolation of a human melanoma adapted Newcastle disease virus mutant with highly selective replication patterns. Cancer Res 50 (18): 5962-8, 1990.
  38. Schirrmacher V, Jurianz K, Roth C, et al.: Tumor stimulator cell modification by infection with Newcastle Disease Virus: analysis of effects and mechanism in MLTC-CML cultures. Int J Oncol 14 (2): 205-15, 1999.
  39. Ravindra PV, Tiwari AK, Ratta B, et al.: Newcastle disease virus-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells is caused by apoptosis. Virus Res 141 (1): 13-20, 2009.
  40. Morse MA: Virus-based therapies for colon cancer. Expert Opin Biol Ther 5 (12): 1627-33, 2005.
  41. Liu TC, Kirn D: Systemic efficacy with oncolytic virus therapeutics: clinical proof-of-concept and future directions. Cancer Res 67 (2): 429-32, 2007.
  42. Cassel WA, Murray DR: A ten-year follow-up on stage II malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 9 (4): 169-71, 1992.
  43. Heicappell R, Schirrmacher V, von Hoegen P, et al.: Prevention of metastatic spread by postoperative immunotherapy with virally modified autologous tumor cells. I. Parameters for optimal therapeutic effects. Int J Cancer 37 (4): 569-77, 1986.
  44. Shoham J, Hirsch R, Zakay-Rones Z, et al.: Augmentation of tumor cell immunogenicity by viruses--an approach to specific immunotherapy of cancer. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul 9 (3): 165-72, 1990.
  45. Zorn U, Duensing S, Langkopf F, et al.: Active specific immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma: cellular and humoral immune responses. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 12 (3): 157-65, 1997.
  46. Plaksin D, Porgador A, Vadai E, et al.: Effective anti-metastatic melanoma vaccination with tumor cells transfected with MHC genes and/or infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Int J Cancer 59 (6): 796-801, 1994.
  47. Bier H, Armonat G, Bier J, et al.: Postoperative active-specific immunotherapy of lymph node micrometastasis in a guinea pig tumor model. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 51 (4): 197-205, 1989.
  48. DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds.: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997.
  49. Liebrich W, Schlag P, Manasterski M, et al.: In vitro and clinical characterisation of a Newcastle disease virus-modified autologous tumour cell vaccine for treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 27 (6): 703-10, 1991.
  50. Ockert D, Schirrmacher V, Beck N, et al.: Newcastle disease virus-infected intact autologous tumor cell vaccine for adjuvant active specific immunotherapy of resected colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2 (1): 21-8, 1996.
  51. Schirrmacher V: Active specific immunotherapy: a new modality of cancer treatment involving the patient's own immune system. Onkologie 16 (5): 290-6, 1993.
  52. Ahlert T, Sauerbrei W, Bastert G, et al.: Tumor-cell number and viability as quality and efficacy parameters of autologous virus-modified cancer vaccines in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 15 (4): 1354-66, 1997.
  53. Ahlert T: Tumor cell vaccination and IL-2 therapy. Hybridoma 12 (5): 549-52, 1993.
  54. Bohle W, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Postoperative active specific immunization in colorectal cancer patients with virus-modified autologous tumor-cell vaccine. First clinical results with tumor-cell vaccines modified with live but avirulent Newcastle disease virus. Cancer 66 (7): 1517-23, 1990.
  55. Lehner B, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Postoperative active specific immunization in curatively resected colorectal cancer patients with a virus-modified autologous tumor cell vaccine. Cancer Immunol Immunother 32 (3): 173-8, 1990.
  56. Pomer S, Schirrmacher V, Thiele R, et al.: Tumor response and 4 year survival data of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with autologous tumor vaccine and subcutaneous r-IL-2 and IFN-alpha2b. Int J Oncol 6: 947-54, 1995.
  57. Schlag P, Manasterski M, Gerneth T, et al.: Active specific immunotherapy with Newcastle-disease-virus-modified autologous tumor cells following resection of liver metastases in colorectal cancer. First evaluation of clinical response of a phase II-trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother 35 (5): 325-30, 1992.
  58. Möbus V, Horn S, Stöck M, et al.: Tumor cell vaccination for gynecological tumors. Hybridoma 12 (5): 543-7, 1993.
  59. Pecora AL, Rizvi N, Cohen GI, et al.: Phase I trial of intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic virus, in patients with advanced solid cancers. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2251-66, 2002.
  60. Cassel WA, Murray DR, Phillips HS: A phase II study on the postsurgical management of Stage II malignant melanoma with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Cancer 52 (5): 856-60, 1983.
  61. Csatary LK: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 2 (7728): 825, 1971.
  62. Mallmann P: Autologous tumor-cell vaccination and lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (LAK-TIL). Hybridoma 12 (5): 559-66, 1993.
  63. Plager C, Bowen JM, Fenoglio C, et al.: Adjuvant immunotherapy of M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) stage III-B malignant melanoma with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 9: A-1091, 281, 1990.
  64. Mallmann P, Eis-Hubinger AM, Krebs D: Lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and autologous tumor vaccine in breast and ovarian cancer. Onkologie 15 (6): 490-6, 1992.
  65. Anton P, Kirchner H, Jonas U, et al.: Cytokines and tumor vaccination. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 11 (5): 315-8, 1996.
  66. Csatary LK, Bakács T: Use of Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H) in a patient with high-grade glioblastoma. JAMA 281 (17): 1588-9, 1999.
  67. Cassel WA, Murras DR, Torbin AH, et al.: Viral oncolysate in the management of malignant melanoma. I. Preparation of the oncolysate and measurement of immunologic responses. Cancer 40 (2): 672-9, 1977.
  68. Murray DR, Cassel WA, Torbin AH, et al.: Viral oncolysate in the management of malignant melanoma. II. Clinical studies. Cancer 40 (2): 680-6, 1977.
  69. Cassel WA, Murray DR: Treatment of stage II malignant melanoma patients with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul 7 (5-6): 351-2, 1988.
  70. Kirchner HH, Anton P, Atzpodien J: Adjuvant treatment of locally advanced renal cancer with autologous virus-modified tumor vaccines. World J Urol 13 (3): 171-3, 1995.
  71. Proebstle TM, Staib G, Kaufmann R, et al.: Autologous active specific immunization (ASI) therapy for metastatic melanoma [abstract from Fifth World Conference on Cancers of the Skin]. Melanoma Res 3: A-133, 35, 1993.
  72. Schirrmacher V: [Anti-tumor vaccination] Zentralbl Chir 125 (Suppl 1): 33-6, 2000.
  73. Pomer S, Thiele R, Staehler G, et al.: [Tumor vaccination in renal cell carcinoma with and without interleukin-2 (IL-2) as adjuvant. A clinical contribution to the development of effective active specific immunization] Urologe A 34 (3): 215-20, 1995.
  74. Schirrmacher V, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Specific immunotherapy of colorectal carcinoma with Newcastle-disease virus-modified autologous tumor cells prepared from resected liver metastasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 690: 364-6, 1993.
  75. Fábián Z, Csatary CM, Szeberényi J, et al.: p53-independent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytotoxicity of a Newcastle disease virus strain in tumor cell lines. J Virol 81 (6): 2817-30, 2007.
  76. Sinkovics J, Horvath J: New developments in the virus therapy of cancer: a historical review. Intervirology 36 (4): 193-214, 1993.
  77. Fábián Z, Töröcsik B, Kiss K, et al.: Induction of apoptosis by a Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H) in PC12 rat phaeochromocytoma cells. Anticancer Res 21 (1A): 125-35, 2001 Jan-Feb.
  78. Schirrmacher V, Bai L, Umansky V, et al.: Newcastle disease virus activates macrophages for anti-tumor activity. Int J Oncol 16 (2): 363-73, 2000.
  79. Schirrmacher V, Heicappell R: Prevention of metastatic spread by postoperative immunotherapy with virally modified autologous tumor cells. II. Establishment of specific systemic anti-tumor immunity. Clin Exp Metastasis 5 (2): 147-56, 1987 Apr-Jun.
  80. Wheelock EF, Dingle JH: Observations on the repeated administration of viruses to a patient with acute leukemia. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 271(13): 645-51, 1964.
  81. Freeman AI, Zakay-Rones Z, Gomori JM, et al.: Phase I/II trial of intravenous NDV-HUJ oncolytic virus in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Mol Ther 13 (1): 221-8, 2006.
  82. Liang W, Wang H, Sun TM, et al.: Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract. World J Gastroenterol 9 (3): 495-8, 2003.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Building a Support System
cancer fighting foods
precancerous lesions slideshow
quit smoking tips
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas