Skip to content

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Human / Clinical Studies

Table 4. Studies of Cancer Treatment by Infection of Patients With NDVa

Reference Citation(s)Type of StudyNDV StrainType of CancerNo. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; ControlbStrongest Benefit ReportedcConcurrent TherapydLevel of Evidence Scoree
mo = month; No. = number.
a See text and theNCI Dictionary of Cancer Termsfor additional information and definition of terms.
b Number of patients treated plus number of patients control may not equal number of patients enrolled; number of patients enrolled = number of patients initially recruited/considered by the researchers who conducted a study; number of patients treated = number of patients who were given the treatment being studiedAND for whom results were reported; historical control subjects are not included in number of patients enrolled.
c The strongest evidence reported that the treatment under study has anticancer activity or otherwise improves the well being of cancer patients.
d Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, or cytokine therapy given/allowed at the same time as virus treatment.
e For information about levels of evidence analysis and an explanation of the level of evidence scores, seeLevels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
f This patient was treated with chemotherapy and five other types of virus in addition to NDV.
[39]Phase II trialMTH-68Various advanced59; 33; 26, placeboImproved overall survivalNo2A
[44]Phase I trialPV701Various advanced79; 79; NonePartial tumor regression, 8 patientsUnknown3iiiDiii
[46]Phase I/IIHUJGlioblastoma multiforme, recurrent14 (phase I–6; phase II–8); 11 (phase I–6, phase II–5); 01 transient (3 mo) complete response, all other patients had progressive diseaseNone3iiiDiii
[38]Case seriesMTH-68Various advanced4; 4; NoneComplete tumor regression, 2 patientsYes4
[47]Selected case seriesMTH-68/HGliomas, high-grade4; 4; 0Radiographically documented responses and long survival with improved symptomatologyVarious4Diii
[45]Phase IPV701Various16; 16; 0Improved patient tolerability with two-step desensitizationNoneN/A
[48]Case reportMTH-68/HAnaplastic astrocytoma1; 1; 0Partial responseValproic acidN/A
[40]Case report73-TAdvanced cervical1; 1; NonePartial tumor regressionNoNone
[41]Anecdotal reportMTH-68Various metastatic3; 3; NoneTumor regressionUnknownNone
[42]Case reportMTH-68Glioblastoma multiforme1; 1; NonePartial tumor regressionYesNone
[43]Case reportHickmanAcute myeloid leukemia1; 1; NonePartial responseYesfNone

Current Clinical Trials

Check NCI's list of cancer clinical trials for cancer CAM clinical trials on oncolytic Newcastle disease virus that are actively enrolling patients.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Batliwalla FM, Bateman BA, Serrano D, et al.: A 15-year follow-up of AJCC stage III malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oncolysate and determination of alterations in the CD8 T cell repertoire. Mol Med 4 (12): 783-94, 1998.
  2. Cassel WA, Murray DR: A ten-year follow-up on stage II malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 9 (4): 169-71, 1992.
  3. Zorn U, Duensing S, Langkopf F, et al.: Active specific immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma: cellular and humoral immune responses. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 12 (3): 157-65, 1997.
  4. Cassel WA, Murray DR, Phillips HS: A phase II study on the postsurgical management of Stage II malignant melanoma with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Cancer 52 (5): 856-60, 1983.
  5. Mallmann P: Autologous tumor-cell vaccination and lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (LAK-TIL). Hybridoma 12 (5): 559-66, 1993.
  6. Plager C, Bowen JM, Fenoglio C, et al.: Adjuvant immunotherapy of M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) stage III-B malignant melanoma with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 9: A-1091, 281, 1990.
  7. Mallmann P, Eis-Hubinger AM, Krebs D: Lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and autologous tumor vaccine in breast and ovarian cancer. Onkologie 15 (6): 490-6, 1992.
  8. Anton P, Kirchner H, Jonas U, et al.: Cytokines and tumor vaccination. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 11 (5): 315-8, 1996.
  9. Cassel WA, Murras DR, Torbin AH, et al.: Viral oncolysate in the management of malignant melanoma. I. Preparation of the oncolysate and measurement of immunologic responses. Cancer 40 (2): 672-9, 1977.
  10. Murray DR, Cassel WA, Torbin AH, et al.: Viral oncolysate in the management of malignant melanoma. II. Clinical studies. Cancer 40 (2): 680-6, 1977.
  11. Cassel WA, Murray DR: Treatment of stage II malignant melanoma patients with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul 7 (5-6): 351-2, 1988.
  12. Kirchner HH, Anton P, Atzpodien J: Adjuvant treatment of locally advanced renal cancer with autologous virus-modified tumor vaccines. World J Urol 13 (3): 171-3, 1995.
  13. Savage HE, Rossen RD, Hersh EM, et al.: Antibody development to viral and allogeneic tumor cell-associated antigens in patients with malignant melanoma and ovarian carcinoma treated with lysates of virus-infected tumor cells. Cancer Res 46 (4 Pt 2): 2127-33, 1986.
  14. Nemunaitis J: Oncolytic viruses yesterday and today. J Oncol Manag 8 (5): 14-24, 1999.
  15. Liebrich W, Schlag P, Manasterski M, et al.: In vitro and clinical characterisation of a Newcastle disease virus-modified autologous tumour cell vaccine for treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 27 (6): 703-10, 1991.
  16. Ockert D, Schirrmacher V, Beck N, et al.: Newcastle disease virus-infected intact autologous tumor cell vaccine for adjuvant active specific immunotherapy of resected colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2 (1): 21-8, 1996.
  17. Ahlert T, Sauerbrei W, Bastert G, et al.: Tumor-cell number and viability as quality and efficacy parameters of autologous virus-modified cancer vaccines in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 15 (4): 1354-66, 1997.
  18. Ahlert T: Tumor cell vaccination and IL-2 therapy. Hybridoma 12 (5): 549-52, 1993.
  19. Bohle W, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Postoperative active specific immunization in colorectal cancer patients with virus-modified autologous tumor-cell vaccine. First clinical results with tumor-cell vaccines modified with live but avirulent Newcastle disease virus. Cancer 66 (7): 1517-23, 1990.
  20. Lehner B, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Postoperative active specific immunization in curatively resected colorectal cancer patients with a virus-modified autologous tumor cell vaccine. Cancer Immunol Immunother 32 (3): 173-8, 1990.
  21. Pomer S, Schirrmacher V, Thiele R, et al.: Tumor response and 4 year survival data of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with autologous tumor vaccine and subcutaneous r-IL-2 and IFN-alpha2b. Int J Oncol 6: 947-54, 1995.
  22. Schlag P, Manasterski M, Gerneth T, et al.: Active specific immunotherapy with Newcastle-disease-virus-modified autologous tumor cells following resection of liver metastases in colorectal cancer. First evaluation of clinical response of a phase II-trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother 35 (5): 325-30, 1992.
  23. Möbus V, Horn S, Stöck M, et al.: Tumor cell vaccination for gynecological tumors. Hybridoma 12 (5): 543-7, 1993.
  24. Proebstle TM, Staib G, Kaufmann R, et al.: Autologous active specific immunization (ASI) therapy for metastatic melanoma [abstract from Fifth World Conference on Cancers of the Skin]. Melanoma Res 3: A-133, 35, 1993.
  25. Schirrmacher V: [Anti-tumor vaccination] Zentralbl Chir 125 (Suppl 1): 33-6, 2000.
  26. Pomer S, Thiele R, Staehler G, et al.: [Tumor vaccination in renal cell carcinoma with and without interleukin-2 (IL-2) as adjuvant. A clinical contribution to the development of effective active specific immunization] Urologe A 34 (3): 215-20, 1995.
  27. Stoeck M, Marland-Noske C, Manasterski M, et al.: In vitro expansion and analysis of T lymphocyte microcultures obtained from the vaccination sites of cancer patients undergoing active specific immunization with autologous Newcastle-disease-virus-modified tumour cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 37 (4): 240-4, 1993.
  28. Herold-Mende C, Karcher J, Dyckhoff G, et al.: Antitumor immunization of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients with a virus-modified autologous tumor cell vaccine. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 62: 173-83, 2005.
  29. Schulze T, Kemmner W, Weitz J, et al.: Efficiency of adjuvant active specific immunization with Newcastle disease virus modified tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients following resection of liver metastases: results of a prospective randomized trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother 58 (1): 61-9, 2009.
  30. Schneider T, Gerhards R, Kirches E, et al.: Preliminary results of active specific immunization with modified tumor cell vaccine in glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol 53 (1): 39-46, 2001.
  31. Steiner HH, Bonsanto MM, Beckhove P, et al.: Antitumor vaccination of patients with glioblastoma multiforme: a pilot study to assess feasibility, safety, and clinical benefit. J Clin Oncol 22 (21): 4272-81, 2004.
  32. Voit C, Kron M, Schwürzer-Voit M, et al.: Intradermal injection of Newcastle disease virus-modified autologous melanoma cell lysate and interleukin-2 for adjuvant treatment of melanoma patients with resectable stage III disease. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 1 (2): 120-5, 2003.
  33. Liang W, Wang H, Sun TM, et al.: Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract. World J Gastroenterol 9 (3): 495-8, 2003.
  34. Schirrmacher V, Ahlert T, Pröbstle T, et al.: Immunization with virus-modified tumor cells. Semin Oncol 25 (6): 677-96, 1998.
  35. Schirrmacher V: Active specific immunotherapy: a new modality of cancer treatment involving the patient's own immune system. Onkologie 16 (5): 290-6, 1993.
  36. Schirrmacher V, Schlag P, Liebrich W, et al.: Specific immunotherapy of colorectal carcinoma with Newcastle-disease virus-modified autologous tumor cells prepared from resected liver metastasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 690: 364-6, 1993.
  37. Schirrmacher V: Clinical trials of antitumor vaccination with an autologous tumor cell vaccine modified by virus infection: improvement of patient survival based on improved antitumor immune memory. Cancer Immunol Immunother 54 (6): 587-98, 2005.
  38. Csatary LK, Moss RW, Beuth J, et al.: Beneficial treatment of patients with advanced cancer using a Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H). Anticancer Res 19 (1B): 635-8, 1999 Jan-Feb.
  39. Csatary LK, Eckhardt S, Bukosza I, et al.: Attenuated veterinary virus vaccine for the treatment of cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 17 (6): 619-27, 1993.
  40. Cassel WA, Garrett RE: Newcastle disease virus as an antineoplastic agent. Cancer 18 (7): 863-8, 1965.
  41. Csatary LK: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 2 (7728): 825, 1971.
  42. Csatary LK, Bakács T: Use of Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H) in a patient with high-grade glioblastoma. JAMA 281 (17): 1588-9, 1999.
  43. Wheelock EF, Dingle JH: Observations on the repeated administration of viruses to a patient with acute leukemia. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 271(13): 645-51, 1964.
  44. Pecora AL, Rizvi N, Cohen GI, et al.: Phase I trial of intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic virus, in patients with advanced solid cancers. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2251-66, 2002.
  45. Laurie SA, Bell JC, Atkins HL, et al.: A phase 1 clinical study of intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic virus, using two-step desensitization. Clin Cancer Res 12 (8): 2555-62, 2006.
  46. Freeman AI, Zakay-Rones Z, Gomori JM, et al.: Phase I/II trial of intravenous NDV-HUJ oncolytic virus in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Mol Ther 13 (1): 221-8, 2006.
  47. Csatary LK, Gosztonyi G, Szeberenyi J, et al.: MTH-68/H oncolytic viral treatment in human high-grade gliomas. J Neurooncol 67 (1-2): 83-93, 2004 Mar-Apr.
  48. Wagner S, Csatary CM, Gosztonyi G, et al.: Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid. APMIS 114 (10): 731-43, 2006.
  49. Nelson NJ: Scientific interest in Newcastle disease virus is reviving. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (20): 1708-10, 1999.
  50. Moss RW: Alternative pharmacological and biological treatments for cancer: ten promising approaches. J Naturopathic Med 6 (1): 23-32, 1996.
  51. Sinkovics J, Horvath J: New developments in the virus therapy of cancer: a historical review. Intervirology 36 (4): 193-214, 1993.
  52. Lorence RM, Roberts MS, O'Neil JD, et al.: Phase 1 clinical experience using intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic Newcastle disease virus. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 7 (2): 157-67, 2007.
  53. Karcher J, Dyckhoff G, Beckhove P, et al.: Antitumor vaccination in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with autologous virus-modified tumor cells. Cancer Res 64 (21): 8057-61, 2004.
  54. Plaksin D, Porgador A, Vadai E, et al.: Effective anti-metastatic melanoma vaccination with tumor cells transfected with MHC genes and/or infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Int J Cancer 59 (6): 796-801, 1994.
  55. Von Hoegen P, Weber E, Schirrmacher V: Modification of tumor cells by a low dose of Newcastle disease virus. Augmentation of the tumor-specific T cell response in the absence of an anti-viral response. Eur J Immunol 18 (8): 1159-66, 1988.
  56. Schirrmacher V, Schild HJ, Gückel B, et al.: Tumour-specific CTL response requiring interactions of four different cell types and recognition of MHC class I and class II restricted tumour antigens. Immunol Cell Biol 71 ( Pt 4): 311-26, 1993.
  57. Bosslet K, Schirrmacher V, Shantz G: Tumor metastases and cell-mediated immunity in a model system in DBA/2 mice. VI. Similar specificity patterns of protective anti-tumor immunity in vivo and of cytolytic T cells in vitro. Int J Cancer 24 (3): 303-13, 1979.
  58. Schirrmacher V, Haas C, Bonifer R, et al.: Human tumor cell modification by virus infection: an efficient and safe way to produce cancer vaccine with pleiotropic immune stimulatory properties when using Newcastle disease virus. Gene Ther 6 (1): 63-73, 1999.
  59. Schirrmacher V, Ahlert T, Heicappell R, et al.: Successful application of non-oncogenic viruses for antimetastatic cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Rev 5: 19-49, 1986.
  60. Schirrmacher V, Haas C, Bonifer R, et al.: Virus potentiation of tumor vaccine T-cell stimulatory capacity requires cell surface binding but not infection. Clin Cancer Res 3 (7): 1135-48, 1997.
  61. Bier H, Armonat G, Bier J, et al.: Postoperative active-specific immunotherapy of lymph node micrometastasis in a guinea pig tumor model. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 51 (4): 197-205, 1989.
  62. Schirrmacher V, Heicappell R: Prevention of metastatic spread by postoperative immunotherapy with virally modified autologous tumor cells. II. Establishment of specific systemic anti-tumor immunity. Clin Exp Metastasis 5 (2): 147-56, 1987 Apr-Jun.
  63. von Hoegen P, Zawatzky R, Schirrmacher V: Modification of tumor cells by a low dose of Newcastle disease virus. III. Potentiation of tumor-specific cytolytic T cell activity via induction of interferon-alpha/beta. Cell Immunol 126 (1): 80-90, 1990.
  64. Schirrmacher V, von Hoegen P, Heicappell R: Virus modified tumor cell vaccines for active specific immunotherapy of micrometastases: expansion and activation of tumor-specific T cells. Prog Clin Biol Res 288: 391-9, 1989.
  65. Schirrmacher V, von Hoegen P, Heicappell R: Postoperative activation of tumor specific T cells by immunization with virus-modified tumor cells and effects on metastasis. Adv Exp Med Biol 233: 91-6, 1988.
  66. von Hoegen P, Heicappell R, Griesbach A, et al.: Prevention of metastatic spread by postoperative immunotherapy with virally modified autologous tumor cells. III. Postoperative activation of tumor-specific CTLP from mice with metastases requires stimulation with the specific antigen plus additional signals. Invasion Metastasis 9 (2): 117-33, 1989.
  67. Patel BT, Lutz MB, Schlag P, et al.: An analysis of autologous T-cell anti-tumour responses in colon-carcinoma patients following active specific immunization (ASI). Int J Cancer 51 (6): 878-85, 1992.
  68. Ilan Y, Sauter B, Chowdhury NR, et al.: Oral tolerization to adenoviral proteins permits repeated adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in rats with pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses. Hepatology 27 (5): 1368-76, 1998.
  69. Ilan Y, Chowdhury JR: Induction of tolerance to hepatitis B virus: can we 'eat the disease' and live with the virus? Med Hypotheses 52 (6): 505-9, 1999.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
A common one in both men and women.
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Do you know the symptoms?
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas