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    Table 2. Studies of NDV Oncolysates in Which Therapeutic Benefit Was Assesseda,b continued...

    The phase II trial of NDV-infected, autologous tumor cell vaccines in patients with renal cell cancer enrolled 40 individuals whose disease had spread from the kidney to at least 1 other organ.[21] The patients in this trial underwent surgery (i.e., radical nephrectomy) to remove the primary tumor and then were given intradermal injections of NDV-infected tumor cells at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after surgery. The patients were also given subcutaneous injections of low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon-alpha. Five patients had a complete response, and six had a partial response. After 4 years of follow-up, overall survival for these 11 responding patients was 100%. Among the remaining 29 patients, 12 had stable disease (median survival = 31 months) and 17 had progressive disease (median survival = 14 months). The researchers also reported a median survival time of 13 months for 36 historical control subjects who were treated with surgery and other types of adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy). The overall percentage of patients with either a complete response or a partial response in this uncontrolled study (i.e., 28%) is similar to that found in other studies in which comparable patients were treated with cytokine therapy but not vaccine therapy.[21] Therefore, it is not clear whether any of the apparent clinical benefit in this trial can be attributed to vaccination with NDV-infected tumor cells.

    A fifth phase II clinical trial tested NDV-infected, autologous tumor cell vaccines in 43 patients who had various advanced cancers (16 ovarian, 22 breast, 1 cervical, 1 vaginal, 1 lung, and 1 chondrosarcoma) that had not responded to previous treatment.[18] The patients in this trial received intravenous injections of cyclophosphamide and epirubicin, subcutaneous injections of low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha, and intradermal injections of the tumor cell vaccines. The cyclophosphamide and epirubicin were administered to block the activity of suppressor T cells that might weaken the desired immune responses. The trial report provided no information about the treatments that had failed, the time intervals between the failure of the last treatment and the beginning of immunotherapy, or how many vaccinations each patient received. The researchers considered 31 of the 43 patients to be evaluable for response. Among the evaluable patients, one individual who had ovarian cancer had a complete response that lasted more than 2 months. The remaining evaluable patients had either partial responses (n = 11), stable disease (n = 10), or progressive disease (n = 9) following treatment. In view of the limited information given, no conclusions can be drawn from this uncontrolled study about the effectiveness of NDV-infected, autologous whole cell vaccines in this patient population.

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