Stages of Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma
For pregnant women with Hodgkin lymphoma, staging tests that protect the fetus from the harms of radiation are used. These include:
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
- Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:
- Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
- Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
- Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.
Stages of adult Hodgkin lymphoma may include A, B, E, and S.
Adult Hodgkin lymphoma may be described as follows:
- A: The patient does not have fever, weight loss, or night sweats.
- B: The patient has B symptoms (fever, weight loss, and night sweats).
- E: Cancer is found in an organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system but which may be next to an involved area of the lymph system.
- S: Cancer is found in the spleen.
The following stages are used for adult Hodgkin lymphoma:
Stage I adult Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer is found in one or more lymph nodes in one lymph node group. In stage IE (not shown), cancer is found outside the lymph nodes in one organ or area.