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Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Colorectal Cancer Prevention

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.

Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

The following risk factors increase the risk of colorectal cancer:

Age

The risk of colorectal cancer increases after age 50. Most cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed after age 50.

Family history of colorectal cancer

Having a parent, brother, sister, or child with colorectal cancer doubles a person's risk of colorectal cancer.

Personal history

Having a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

Inherited risk

The risk of colorectal cancer is increased when certain gene changes linked to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC or Lynch Syndrome) are inherited.

Alcohol

Drinking 3 or more alcoholic beverages per day increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Drinking alcohol is also linked to the risk of forming large colorectal adenomas (benign tumors).

Cigarette smoking

Cigarette smoking is linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer and death from colorectal cancer.

Smoking cigarettes is also linked to an increased risk of forming colorectal adenomas. Cigarette smokers who have had surgery to remove colorectal adenomas are at an increased risk for the adenomas to recur (come back).

Obesity

Obesity is linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer and death from colorectal cancer.

The following protective factors decrease the risk of colorectal cancer:

Physical activity

A lifestyle that includes regular physical activity is linked to a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.

Aspirin

Taking aspirin every day for at least 5 years decreases the risk of colorectal cancer and the risk of death from colorectal cancer.

The possible harms of aspirin use include a higher than normal risk of bleeding in the stomach, intestines, or brain.

Hormone replacement therapy

Studies have shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) that includes both estrogen and progesterone lowers the risk of colon cancer in postmenopausal women. HRT with estrogen alone does not lower the risk. However, hormone use increases the risk of breast cancer, heart disease, and blood clots.

The use of hormone replacement therapy that includes both estrogen and progesterone has not been shown to lower the risk of rectal cancer.

Polyp removal

Most colorectal polyps are adenomas, which may develop into cancer. Removing colorectal polyps that are larger than 1 centimeter (cm) may lower the risk of colorectal cancer. It is not known if removing smaller polyps lowers the risk of colorectal cancer.

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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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