Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your child's doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for your child.
Incidence and mortality
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The treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma often includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The order that these treatments are given depends on where in the body the tumor started, the size of the tumor, the type of tumor, and whether the tumor has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. See the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information about surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy used to treat children with rhabdomyosarcoma.
For tumors of the brain: Treatment may include surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
For tumors of the head and neck that are in or near the eye: Treatment may include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. If the tumor remains or comes back after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, surgery to remove the eye and some tissues around the eye may be needed.
For tumors of the head and neck that are near the brain and spinal cord but not in or near the eye: Treatment may include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
For tumors of the head and neck that cannot be removed by surgery: Treatment may include chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
For tumors of the larynx (voice box): Treatment may include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery to remove the larynx is usually not done, so that the voice is not harmed.
Rhabdomyosarcoma of the arms or legs
Surgery to remove the tumor. If the tumor was not completely removed, a second surgery to remove the tumor may be done.
For tumors of the hand or foot, radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be given. The tumor may not be removed because the function of the hand or foot would be lessened.
Lymph node dissection (one or more lymph nodes are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer).
For tumors in the arms, lymph nodes near the tumor and in the armpit area are removed.
For tumors in the legs, lymph nodes near the tumor and in the groin area are removed.
For tumors in the chest or abdomen (including the chest wall or abdominal wall): Surgery (wide local excision) may be done. If the tumor is large, chemotherapy, and sometimes radiation therapy, is given to shrink the tumor before surgery.
For tumors of the pelvis: Surgery (wide local excision) may be done. If the tumor is large, chemotherapy, and sometimes radiation therapy, is given to shrink the tumor before surgery. Some pelvic tumors may be treated with biopsy, rather than wide local excision, followed by radiation therapy.
For tumors of the diaphragm: A biopsy of the tumor is followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy to shrink the tumor. Surgery may be done later to remove any remaining cancer cells.
For tumors of the gallbladder or bile ducts: Surgery is done to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
For tumors of the muscles or tissues around the anus or between the vulva and the anus or the scrotum and the anus: Surgery is done to remove as much of the tumor as possible and some nearby lymph nodes, followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.