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Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

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If these tests show there may be a soft tissue sarcoma, a biopsy is done. One of the following types of biopsies may be used:

  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: The removal of tissue or fluid using a thin needle. A pathologist views the tissue or fluid under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
  • Core biopsy: The removal of tissue using a wide needle. This procedure may be guided using ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
  • Incisional biopsy: The removal of part of a lump or a sample of tissue. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
  • Excisional biopsy: The removal of an entire lump or area of tissue that doesn't look normal. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. An excisional biopsy may be used to completely remove smaller tumors that are near the surface of the skin.

In order to plan the best treatment, a large sample of tissue may be removed during the biopsy to find out the type of soft tissue sarcoma and do laboratory tests. Tissue samples will be taken from the primary tumor, lymph nodes, and other areas that may have a tumor. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells and to find out the type and grade of the tumor. The grade of a tumor depends on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how quickly the cells are dividing. High-grade and mid-grade tumors usually grow and spread more quickly than low-grade tumors. Because soft tissue sarcoma can be hard to diagnose, patients should ask to have the tissue sample checked by a pathologist who has experience in diagnosing soft tissue sarcoma.

One or more of the following laboratory tests may be done to study the tissue samples:

  • Cytogenetic analysis: A laboratory test in which cells in a sample of tissue are viewed under a microscope to look for certain changes in the chromosomes.
  • Immunohistochemistry study: A laboratory test in which dyes or enzymes are added to a blood or bone marrow sample to test for certain antigens (proteins that stimulate the body's immune response).
  • Immunocytochemistry study: A laboratory test that uses different substances to stain (color) cells in a sample of tissue. This is used to tell the difference between the different types of soft tissue sarcoma.
  • Light and electron microscopy: A laboratory test in which cells in a sample of tissue are viewed under regular and high-powered microscopes to look for certain changes in the cells.
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