Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal gland.
There are two adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small and shaped like a triangle. One adrenal gland sits on top of each kidney. Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla.
Anatomy of the adrenal gland. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The outer part of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is the adrenal medulla.
The adrenal cortex makes important hormones that:
- Balance the water and salt in the body.
- Help keep blood pressure normal.
- Help control the body's use of protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
- Cause the body to have masculine or feminine characteristics.
Adrenocortical carcinoma is also called cancer of the adrenal cortex. A tumor of the adrenal cortex may be functioning (makes more hormones than normal) or nonfunctioning (does not make hormones). Most adrenocortical tumors are functioning. The hormones made by functioning tumors may cause certain signs or symptoms of disease.
The adrenal medulla makes hormones that help the body react to stress. Cancer that forms in the adrenal medulla is called pheochromocytoma and is not discussed in this summary. See the PDQ summary on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma for more information.
Adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma can occur in both adults and children. Treatment for children, however, is different than treatment for adults. (See the sections on Cancer of Adrenal Cortex and Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma in the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment for more information.)
Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma.
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk.
Risk factors for adrenocortical carcinoma include having the following hereditary diseases:
- Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
- Carney complex.