Once childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. In childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the subtype of AML and whether the leukemia has spread outside the blood and bone marrow are used, instead of the stage, to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used to determine if the leukemia has spread:
The body needs extra energy and nutrients to heal wounds, fight infection, and recover from surgery. If the patient is malnourished before surgery, it may cause problems during recovery, such as poor healing or infection. For these patients, nutrition care may begin before surgery.
More than half of cancer patients are treated with surgery. Surgery that removes all or part of certain organs can affect a patient's ability to eat and digest food. The following are nutrition problems caused by specific types of surgery:
Surgery to the head and neck may cause problems with:
Surgery that affects the esophagus, stomach, or intestines may keep these organs from working as they should to digest food and absorb nutrients.
All of these can affect the patient's ability to eat normally. Emotional stress about the surgery itself also may affect appetite.
Nutrition therapy can help relieve nutrition problems caused by surgery.
Nutrition therapy can relieve or decrease the side effects of surgery and help cancer patients get the nutrients they need. Nutrition therapy may include the following:
Nutritional supplement drinks.
Enteral nutrition (feeding liquid through a tube into the stomach or intestines).
Parenteral nutrition (feeding through a catheter into the bloodstream).
Medicines to increase appetite.
It is common for patients to have pain, tiredness, and/or loss of appetite after surgery. For a short time, some patients may not be able to eat what they usually do because of these symptoms. Following certain tips about food may help. These include:
Stay away from carbonated drinks (such as sodas) and foods that cause gas, such as:
Increase calories by frying foods and using gravies, mayonnaise, and salad dressings. Supplements high in calories and protein can also be used.
Choose high-protein and high-calorie foods to increase energy and help wounds heal. Good choices include:
If constipation is a problem, increase fiber by small amounts and drink lots of water. Good sources of fiber include:
Whole-grain cereals (such as oatmeal and bran).
See the Constipation section for more information.
Chemotherapy affects fast-growing cells and is used to treat cancer because cancer cells grow and divide quickly. Healthy cells that normally grow and divide quickly may also be killed. These include cells in the mouth, digestive tract, and hair follicles.
Chemotherapy may affect nutrition.
Chemotherapy may cause side effects that cause problems with eating and digestion. When more than one anticancer drug is given, more side effects may occur or they may be more severe. The following side effects are common: