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Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Effects of Cancer Treatment on Nutrition

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Nutrition therapy can help relieve nutrition problems caused by biologic therapy.

The side effects of biologic therapy can cause weight loss and malnutrition if they are not treated. Nutrition therapy can help patients receiving biologic therapy get the nutrients they need to get through treatment, prevent weight loss, and maintain general health.

Stem Cell Transplant and Nutrition

Stem cell transplant patients have special nutrition needs.

Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and medicines used for a stem cell transplant may cause side effects that keep a patient from eating and digesting food as usual. Common side effects include the following:

  • Changes in the way food tastes.
  • Dry mouth or thick saliva.
  • Mouth and throat sores.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Constipation.
  • Weight loss and loss of appetite.
  • Weight gain.

Nutrition therapy is very important for patients who have a stem cell transplant.

Transplant patients have a very high risk of infection. High doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy decrease the number of white blood cells, which fight infection. It is especially important that transplant patients avoid getting infections.

Patients who have a transplant need plenty of protein and calories to get through and recover from the treatment, prevent weight loss, fight infection, and maintain general health. It is also important to avoid infection from bacteria in food. Nutrition therapy during transplant treatment may include the following:

  • A diet of cooked and processed foods only, because raw vegetables and fresh fruit may carry harmful bacteria.
  • Guidelines on safe food handling.
  • A specific diet based on the type of transplant and the part of the body affected by cancer.
  • Parenteral nutrition (feeding through the bloodstream) during the first few weeks after the transplant, to give the patient the calories, protein, vitamins, minerals, and fluids they need to recover.

See the Low White Blood Cell Counts and Infections section for more information.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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