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    Table 2. Exploring Spiritual/Religious Concerns in Adults With Cancera continued...


    Other therapies may also support spiritual growth and post-traumatic benefit finding. For example, in a nonrandomized comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction (n = 60) and a healing arts program (n = 44) in cancer outpatients with a variety of diagnoses, both programs significantly improved facilitation of positive growth in participants, although improvement in spirituality, stress, depression, and anger was significantly larger for the mindfulness-based stress reduction group.[21][Level of evidence: II]


    1. Kristeller JL, Zumbrun CS, Schilling RF: 'I would if I could': how oncologists and oncology nurses address spiritual distress in cancer patients. Psychooncology 8 (5): 451-8, 1999 Sep-Oct.
    2. Ben-Arye E, Bar-Sela G, Frenkel M, et al.: Is a biopsychosocial-spiritual approach relevant to cancer treatment? A study of patients and oncology staff members on issues of complementary medicine and spirituality. Support Care Cancer 14 (2): 147-52, 2006.
    3. Lo B, Ruston D, Kates LW, et al.: Discussing religious and spiritual issues at the end of life: a practical guide for physicians. JAMA 287 (6): 749-54, 2002.
    4. Astrow AB, Wexler A, Texeira K, et al.: Is failure to meet spiritual needs associated with cancer patients' perceptions of quality of care and their satisfaction with care? J Clin Oncol 25 (36): 5753-7, 2007.
    5. Balboni TA, Paulk ME, Balboni MJ, et al.: Provision of spiritual care to patients with advanced cancer: associations with medical care and quality of life near death. J Clin Oncol 28 (3): 445-52, 2010.
    6. Kristeller JL, Rhodes M, Cripe LD, et al.: Oncologist Assisted Spiritual Intervention Study (OASIS): patient acceptability and initial evidence of effects. Int J Psychiatry Med 35 (4): 329-47, 2005.
    7. King DE, Bushwick B: Beliefs and attitudes of hospital inpatients about faith healing and prayer. J Fam Pract 39 (4): 349-52, 1994.
    8. Hebert RS, Jenckes MW, Ford DE, et al.: Patient perspectives on spirituality and the patient-physician relationship. J Gen Intern Med 16 (10): 685-92, 2001.
    9. Balboni MJ, Babar A, Dillinger J, et al.: "It depends": viewpoints of patients, physicians, and nurses on patient-practitioner prayer in the setting of advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 41 (5): 836-47, 2011.
    10. Fitchett G, Meyer PM, Burton LA: Spiritual care in the hospital: who requests it? Who needs it? J Pastoral Care 54 (2): 173-86, 2000 Summer.
    11. Handzo G: Where do chaplains fit in the world of cancer care? J Health Care Chaplain 4 (1-2): 29-44, 1992.
    12. Association of Professional Chaplains., Association for Clinical Pastoral Education., Canadian Association for Pastoral Practice and Education., et al.: A White Paper. Professional chaplaincy: its role and importance in healthcare. J Pastoral Care 55 (1): 81-97, 2001 Spring.
    13. Targ EF, Levine EG: The efficacy of a mind-body-spirit group for women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 24 (4): 238-48, 2002 Jul-Aug.
    14. Shaw B, Han JY, Kim E, et al.: Effects of prayer and religious expression within computer support groups on women with breast cancer. Psychooncology 16 (7): 676-87, 2007.
    15. Antle B, Collins WL: The impact of a spirituality-based support group on self-efficacy and well-being of African American breast cancer survivors: a mixed methods design. Social Work and Christianity 36 (3): 286-300, 2009.
    16. Cunningham AJ: Group psychological therapy: an integral part of care for cancer patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies 1(1): 67-75, 2002.
    17. Cunningham AJ, Edmonds CV, Phillips C, et al.: A prospective, longitudinal study of the relationship of psychological work to duration of survival in patients with metastatic cancer. Psychooncology 9 (4): 323-39, 2000 Jul-Aug.
    18. Breitbart W: Spirituality and meaning in supportive care: spirituality- and meaning-centered group psychotherapy interventions in advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer 10 (4): 272-80, 2002.
    19. Cole B, Pargament K: Re-creating your life: a spiritual/psychotherapeutic intervention for people diagnosed with cancer. Psychooncology 8 (5): 395-407, 1999 Sep-Oct.
    20. Spiegel D, Bloom JR, Kraemer H, et al.: Psychological support for cancer patients. Lancet 2 (8677): 1447, 1989.
    21. Garland SN, Carlson LE, Cook S, et al.: A non-randomized comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and healing arts programs for facilitating post-traumatic growth and spirituality in cancer outpatients. Support Care Cancer 15 (8): 949-61, 2007.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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