Skip to content

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Late Effects of the Central Nervous System

Table 3. Central Nervous System Late Effects continued...

Because of the challenges associated with the diagnosis of an AYA cancer, it is important for this group to have access to programs to address the unique psychosocial, educational, and vocational issues that impact their transition to survivorship.[67,68]

Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for CNS and psychosocial late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.


  1. Nathan PC, Patel SK, Dilley K, et al.: Guidelines for identification of, advocacy for, and intervention in neurocognitive problems in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161 (8): 798-806, 2007.
  2. Robinson KE, Kuttesch JF, Champion JE, et al.: A quantitative meta-analysis of neurocognitive sequelae in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 55 (3): 525-31, 2010.
  3. Reeves CB, Palmer SL, Reddick WE, et al.: Attention and memory functioning among pediatric patients with medulloblastoma. J Pediatr Psychol 31 (3): 272-80, 2006.
  4. Ellenberg L, Liu Q, Gioia G, et al.: Neurocognitive status in long-term survivors of childhood CNS malignancies: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Neuropsychology 23 (6): 705-17, 2009.
  5. Palmer SL, Goloubeva O, Reddick WE, et al.: Patterns of intellectual development among survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma: a longitudinal analysis. J Clin Oncol 19 (8): 2302-8, 2001.
  6. Armstrong GT, Conklin HM, Huang S, et al.: Survival and long-term health and cognitive outcomes after low-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol 13 (2): 223-34, 2011.
  7. Di Pinto M, Conklin HM, Li C, et al.: Learning and memory following conformal radiation therapy for pediatric craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84 (3): e363-9, 2012.
  8. Reimers TS, Ehrenfels S, Mortensen EL, et al.: Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors. Med Pediatr Oncol 40 (1): 26-34, 2003.
  9. Mabbott DJ, Spiegler BJ, Greenberg ML, et al.: Serial evaluation of academic and behavioral outcome after treatment with cranial radiation in childhood. J Clin Oncol 23 (10): 2256-63, 2005.
  10. Brière ME, Scott JG, McNall-Knapp RY, et al.: Cognitive outcome in pediatric brain tumor survivors: delayed attention deficit at long-term follow-up. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (2): 337-40, 2008.
  11. Edelstein K, Spiegler BJ, Fung S, et al.: Early aging in adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma: long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes. Neuro Oncol 13 (5): 536-45, 2011.
  12. Mulhern RK, Merchant TE, Gajjar A, et al.: Late neurocognitive sequelae in survivors of brain tumours in childhood. Lancet Oncol 5 (7): 399-408, 2004.
  13. Mulhern RK, White HA, Glass JO, et al.: Attentional functioning and white matter integrity among survivors of malignant brain tumors of childhood. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 10 (2): 180-9, 2004.
  14. Reddick WE, White HA, Glass JO, et al.: Developmental model relating white matter volume to neurocognitive deficits in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Cancer 97 (10): 2512-9, 2003.
  15. Ris MD, Packer R, Goldwein J, et al.: Intellectual outcome after reduced-dose radiation therapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy for medulloblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 19 (15): 3470-6, 2001.
  16. Merchant TE, Conklin HM, Wu S, et al.: Late effects of conformal radiation therapy for pediatric patients with low-grade glioma: prospective evaluation of cognitive, endocrine, and hearing deficits. J Clin Oncol 27 (22): 3691-7, 2009.
  17. Barahmani N, Carpentieri S, Li XN, et al.: Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms may predict adverse effects after therapy in children with medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol 11 (3): 292-300, 2009.
  18. Pui CH, Howard SC: Current management and challenges of malignant disease in the CNS in paediatric leukaemia. Lancet Oncol 9 (3): 257-68, 2008.
  19. Halsey C, Buck G, Richards S, et al.: The impact of therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on intelligence quotients; results of the risk-stratified randomized central nervous system treatment trial MRC UKALL XI. J Hematol Oncol 4: 42, 2011.
  20. Conklin HM, Krull KR, Reddick WE, et al.: Cognitive outcomes following contemporary treatment without cranial irradiation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Natl Cancer Inst 104 (18): 1386-95, 2012.
  21. Cousens P, Waters B, Said J, et al.: Cognitive effects of cranial irradiation in leukaemia: a survey and meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 29 (6): 839-52, 1988.
  22. Jankovic M, Brouwers P, Valsecchi MG, et al.: Association of 1800 cGy cranial irradiation with intellectual function in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. ISPACC. International Study Group on Psychosocial Aspects of Childhood Cancer. Lancet 344 (8917): 224-7, 1994.
  23. Reddick WE, Shan ZY, Glass JO, et al.: Smaller white-matter volumes are associated with larger deficits in attention and learning among long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 106 (4): 941-9, 2006.
  24. Kadan-Lottick NS, Zeltzer LK, Liu Q, et al.: Neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of childhood non-central nervous system cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 102 (12): 881-93, 2010.
  25. Mulhern RK, Fairclough D, Ochs J: A prospective comparison of neuropsychologic performance of children surviving leukemia who received 18-Gy, 24-Gy, or no cranial irradiation. J Clin Oncol 9 (8): 1348-56, 1991.
  26. Silber JH, Radcliffe J, Peckham V, et al.: Whole-brain irradiation and decline in intelligence: the influence of dose and age on IQ score. J Clin Oncol 10 (9): 1390-6, 1992.
  27. Edelstein K, D'agostino N, Bernstein LJ, et al.: Long-term neurocognitive outcomes in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 33 (6): 450-8, 2011.
  28. Moore IM, Kramer JH, Wara W, et al.: Cognitive function in children with leukemia. Effect of radiation dose and time since irradiation. Cancer 68 (9): 1913-7, 1991.
  29. Spiegler BJ, Kennedy K, Maze R, et al.: Comparison of long-term neurocognitive outcomes in young children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with cranial radiation or high-dose or very high-dose intravenous methotrexate. J Clin Oncol 24 (24): 3858-64, 2006.
  30. Campbell LK, Scaduto M, Sharp W, et al.: A meta-analysis of the neurocognitive sequelae of treatment for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49 (1): 65-73, 2007.
  31. Giralt J, Ortega JJ, Olive T, et al.: Long-term neuropsychologic sequelae of childhood leukemia: comparison of two CNS prophylactic regimens. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24 (1): 49-53, 1992.
  32. Krull KR, Khan RB, Ness KK, et al.: Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (7): 1191-6, 2011.
  33. Mennes M, Stiers P, Vandenbussche E, et al.: Attention and information processing in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with chemotherapy only. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44 (5): 478-86, 2005.
  34. Jansen NC, Kingma A, Schuitema A, et al.: Neuropsychological outcome in chemotherapy-only-treated children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 26 (18): 3025-30, 2008.
  35. Buizer AI, de Sonneville LM, Veerman AJ: Effects of chemotherapy on neurocognitive function in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a critical review of the literature. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (4): 447-54, 2009.
  36. Peterson CC, Johnson CE, Ramirez LY, et al.: A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological sequelae of chemotherapy-only treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (1): 99-104, 2008.
  37. Espy KA, Moore IM, Kaufmann PM, et al.: Chemotherapeutic CNS prophylaxis and neuropsychologic change in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective study. J Pediatr Psychol 26 (1): 1-9, 2001 Jan-Feb.
  38. Kaemingk KL, Carey ME, Moore IM, et al.: Math weaknesses in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia compared to healthy children. Child Neuropsychol 10 (1): 14-23, 2004.
  39. von der Weid N, Mosimann I, Hirt A, et al.: Intellectual outcome in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy alone: age- and sex-related differences. Eur J Cancer 39 (3): 359-65, 2003.
  40. Cohen ME, Duffner PK: Long-term consequences of CNS treatment for childhood cancer, Part I: Pathologic consequences and potential for oncogenesis. Pediatr Neurol 7 (3): 157-63, 1991 May-Jun.
  41. Kadan-Lottick NS, Brouwers P, Breiger D, et al.: A comparison of neurocognitive functioning in children previously randomized to dexamethasone or prednisone in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 114 (9): 1746-52, 2009.
  42. Mitby PA, Robison LL, Whitton JA, et al.: Utilization of special education services and educational attainment among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 97 (4): 1115-26, 2003.
  43. Mulhern RK, Kovnar E, Langston J, et al.: Long-term survivors of leukemia treated in infancy: factors associated with neuropsychologic status. J Clin Oncol 10 (7): 1095-102, 1992.
  44. Kaleita TA, Reaman GH, MacLean WE, et al.: Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Cancer Group report. Cancer 85 (8): 1859-65, 1999.
  45. Phipps S, Rai SN, Leung WH, et al.: Cognitive and academic consequences of stem-cell transplantation in children. J Clin Oncol 26 (12): 2027-33, 2008.
  46. Shah AJ, Epport K, Azen C, et al.: Progressive declines in neurocognitive function among survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric hematologic malignancies. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 30 (6): 411-8, 2008.
  47. Anderson FS, Kunin-Batson AS, Perkins JL, et al.: White versus gray matter function as seen on neuropsychological testing following bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia in childhood. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 4 (1): 283-8, 2008.
  48. Ness KK, Hudson MM, Pui CH, et al.: Neuromuscular impairments in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: associations with physical performance and chemotherapy doses. Cancer 118 (3): 828-38, 2012.
  49. Goldsby RE, Liu Q, Nathan PC, et al.: Late-occurring neurologic sequelae in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 28 (2): 324-31, 2010.
  50. Fuemmeler BF, Elkin TD, Mullins LL: Survivors of childhood brain tumors: behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment. Clin Psychol Rev 22 (4): 547-85, 2002.
  51. Schulte F, Barrera M: Social competence in childhood brain tumor survivors: a comprehensive review. Support Care Cancer 18 (12): 1499-513, 2010.
  52. Kunin-Batson A, Kadan-Lottick N, Zhu L, et al.: Predictors of independent living status in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (7): 1197-203, 2011.
  53. Sun CL, Francisco L, Baker KS, et al.: Adverse psychological outcomes in long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study (BMTSS). Blood 118 (17): 4723-31, 2011.
  54. Krull KR, Huang S, Gurney JG, et al.: Adolescent behavior and adult health status in childhood cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv 4 (3): 210-7, 2010.
  55. Recklitis C, O'Leary T, Diller L: Utility of routine psychological screening in the childhood cancer survivor clinic. J Clin Oncol 21 (5): 787-92, 2003.
  56. Phipps S, Larson S, Long A, et al.: Adaptive style and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children with cancer and their parents. J Pediatr Psychol 31 (3): 298-309, 2006.
  57. Phipps S, Jurbergs N, Long A: Symptoms of post-traumatic stress in children with cancer: does personality trump health status? Psychooncology 18 (9): 992-1002, 2009.
  58. Stuber ML, Meeske KA, Leisenring W, et al.: Defining medical posttraumatic stress among young adult survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 33 (4): 347-53, 2011 Jul-Aug.
  59. Rourke MT, Hobbie WL, Schwartz L, et al.: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49 (2): 177-82, 2007.
  60. Schwartz L, Drotar D: Posttraumatic stress and related impairment in survivors of childhood cancer in early adulthood compared to healthy peers. J Pediatr Psychol 31 (4): 356-66, 2006.
  61. Stuber ML, Meeske KA, Krull KR, et al.: Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatrics 125 (5): e1124-34, 2010.
  62. Hobbie WL, Stuber M, Meeske K, et al.: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. J Clin Oncol 18 (24): 4060-6, 2000.
  63. Dieluweit U, Debatin KM, Grabow D, et al.: Social outcomes of long-term survivors of adolescent cancer. Psychooncology 19 (12): 1277-84, 2010.
  64. Seitz DC, Hagmann D, Besier T, et al.: Life satisfaction in adult survivors of cancer during adolescence: what contributes to the latter satisfaction with life? Qual Life Res 20 (2): 225-36, 2011.
  65. Tai E, Buchanan N, Townsend J, et al.: Health status of adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. Cancer 118 (19): 4884-91, 2012.
  66. Schultz KA, Ness KK, Whitton J, et al.: Behavioral and social outcomes in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol 25 (24): 3649-56, 2007.
  67. Freyer DR: Transition of care for young adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: rationale and approaches. J Clin Oncol 28 (32): 4810-8, 2010.
  68. Nathan PC, Hayes-Lattin B, Sisler JJ, et al.: Critical issues in transition and survivorship for adolescents and young adults with cancers. Cancer 117 (10 Suppl): 2335-41, 2011.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
A common one in both men and women.
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Do you know the symptoms?
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas