Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Late Effects of the Digestive System

Table 6. Hepatobiliary Late Effects

Predisposing TherapyHepatic EffectsHealth Screening/Interventions
ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; HSCT = hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Methotrexate; mercaptopurine/thioguanine; HSCTHepatic dysfunctionLab: ALT, AST, bilirubin levels
Ferritin in those treated with HSCT
Mercaptopurine/thioguanine; HSCTVeno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstructive syndromeExam: scleral icterus, jaundice, ascites, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly
Lab: ALT, AST, bilirubin, platelet levels
Ferritin in those treated with HSCT
Radiation impacting liver/biliary tract; HSCTHepatic fibrosis/cirrhosisExam: jaundice, spider angiomas, palmar erythema, xanthomata hepatomegaly, splenomegaly
Lab: ALT, AST, bilirubin levels
Ferritin in those treated with HSCT
Prothrombin time for evaluation of hepatic synthetic function in patients with abnormal liver screening tests
Screen for viral hepatitis in patients with persistently abnormal liver function or any patient transfused prior to 1993
Gastroenterology/hepatology consultation in patients with persistent liver dysfunction
Hepatitis A and B immunizations in patients lacking immunity
Consider phlebotomy and chelation therapy for iron overload
Radiation impacting liver/biliary tractCholelithiasisHistory: colicky abdominal pain related to fatty food intake, excessive flatulence
Exam: right upper quadrant or epigastric tenderness (acute episode)
Consider gallbladder ultrasound in patients with chronic abdominal pain

Pancreas

The pancreas has been thought to be relatively radioresistant because of a paucity of information about late pancreatic-related effects. However, children and young adults treated with total-body or abdominal radiation are known to have an increased risk of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

A retrospective cohort study, based on self-reports of 2,520 five-year survivors of childhood cancer treated in France and the United Kingdom, investigated the relationship between radiation dose to the pancreas and risk of a subsequent diabetes diagnosis. Sixty-five cases of diabetes were validated; the risk increased with radiation to the tail of the pancreas, where the islets of Langerhans are concentrated. Risk increased up to 20 to 29 Gy and then plateaued. The estimated RR at 1 Gy was 1.61. Radiation dose to other parts of the pancreas did not have a significant effect. Compared with patients who did not receive radiation, the RR of diabetes was 11.5 in patients who received more than 10 Gy to the pancreas. Children younger than 2 years at the time of radiation were more sensitive than older patients (RR at 1 Gy was 2.1 for the young age group vs. 1.4 for older patients). For the 511 patients who received more than 10 Gy, the cumulative incidence of diabetes was 16%.[62]

Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for digestive system late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.

References:

  1. Alpaslan G, Alpaslan C, Gögen H, et al.: Disturbances in oral and dental structures in patients with pediatric lymphoma after chemotherapy: a preliminary report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 87 (3): 317-21, 1999.
  2. Hölttä P, Alaluusua S, Saarinen-Pihkala UM, et al.: Agenesis and microdontia of permanent teeth as late adverse effects after stem cell transplantation in young children. Cancer 103 (1): 181-90, 2005.
  3. Hölttä P, Hovi L, Saarinen-Pihkala UM, et al.: Disturbed root development of permanent teeth after pediatric stem cell transplantation. Dental root development after SCT. Cancer 103 (7): 1484-93, 2005.
  4. Kaste SC, Goodman P, Leisenring W, et al.: Impact of radiation and chemotherapy on risk of dental abnormalities: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 115 (24): 5817-27, 2009.
  5. Kaste SC, Hopkins KP, Bowman LC, et al.: Dental abnormalities in children treated for neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 30 (1): 22-7, 1998.
  6. Paulino AC: Role of radiation therapy in parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Invest 17 (3): 223-30, 1999.
  7. Paulino AC, Simon JH, Zhen W, et al.: Long-term effects in children treated with radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48 (5): 1489-95, 2000.
  8. Maciel JC, de Castro CG Jr, Brunetto AL, et al.: Oral health and dental anomalies in patients treated for leukemia in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (3): 361-5, 2009.
  9. Hsieh SG, Hibbert S, Shaw P, et al.: Association of cyclophosphamide use with dental developmental defects and salivary gland dysfunction in recipients of childhood antineoplastic therapy. Cancer 117 (10): 2219-27, 2011.
  10. Maguire A, Craft AW, Evans RG, et al.: The long-term effects of treatment on the dental condition of children surviving malignant disease. Cancer 60 (10): 2570-5, 1987.
  11. Kaste SC, Hopkins KP, Jones D, et al.: Dental abnormalities in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 11 (6): 792-6, 1997.
  12. O'Sullivan EA, Duggal MS, Bailey CC: Changes in the oral health of children during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Int J Paediatr Dent 4 (1): 31-4, 1994.
  13. Dahllöf G: Oral and dental late effects after pediatric stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 14 (1 Suppl 1): 81-3, 2008.
  14. Vesterbacka M, Ringdén O, Remberger M, et al.: Disturbances in dental development and craniofacial growth in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Orthod Craniofac Res 15 (1): 21-9, 2012.
  15. Hölttä P, Alaluusua S, Saarinen-Pihkala UM, et al.: Long-term adverse effects on dentition in children with poor-risk neuroblastoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation with or without total body irradiation. Bone Marrow Transplant 29 (2): 121-7, 2002.
  16. Jensen SB, Pedersen AM, Vissink A, et al.: A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life. Support Care Cancer 18 (8): 1039-60, 2010.
  17. Jensen SB, Pedersen AM, Vissink A, et al.: A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: management strategies and economic impact. Support Care Cancer 18 (8): 1061-79, 2010.
  18. Yeazel MW, Gurney JG, Oeffinger KC, et al.: An examination of the dental utilization practices of adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Public Health Dent 64 (1): 50-4, 2004.
  19. Bölling T, Willich N, Ernst I: Late effects of abdominal irradiation in children: a review of the literature. Anticancer Res 30 (1): 227-31, 2010.
  20. Churnratanakul S, Wirzba B, Lam T, et al.: Radiation and the small intestine. Future perspectives for preventive therapy. Dig Dis 8 (1): 45-60, 1990.
  21. Sher ME, Bauer J: Radiation-induced enteropathy. Am J Gastroenterol 85 (2): 121-8, 1990.
  22. Emami B, Lyman J, Brown A, et al.: Tolerance of normal tissue to therapeutic irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21 (1): 109-22, 1991.
  23. Donaldson SS, Jundt S, Ricour C, et al.: Radiation enteritis in children. A retrospective review, clinicopathologic correlation, and dietary management. Cancer 35 (4): 1167-78, 1975.
  24. Heyn R, Raney RB Jr, Hays DM, et al.: Late effects of therapy in patients with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Committee. J Clin Oncol 10 (4): 614-23, 1992.
  25. Hughes LL, Baruzzi MJ, Ribeiro RC, et al.: Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: delayed effects of multimodality therapy and implications for current management. Cancer 73 (2): 476-82, 1994.
  26. Paulino AC, Wen BC, Brown CK, et al.: Late effects in children treated with radiation therapy for Wilms' tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46 (5): 1239-46, 2000.
  27. Raney B Jr, Heyn R, Hays DM, et al.: Sequelae of treatment in 109 patients followed for 5 to 15 years after diagnosis of sarcoma of the bladder and prostate. A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Committee. Cancer 71 (7): 2387-94, 1993.
  28. Ritchey ML, Kelalis PP, Etzioni R, et al.: Small bowel obstruction after nephrectomy for Wilms' tumor. A report of the National Wilms' Tumor Study-3. Ann Surg 218 (5): 654-9, 1993.
  29. Goldsby R, Chen Y, Raber S, et al.: Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of gastrointestinal complications later in life. Gastroenterology 140 (5): 1464-71.e1, 2011.
  30. Mulder RL, van Dalen EC, Van den Hof M, et al.: Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7): CD008205, 2011.
  31. Broxson EH, Dole M, Wong R, et al.: Portal hypertension develops in a subset of children with standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with oral 6-thioguanine during maintenance therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44 (3): 226-31, 2005.
  32. De Bruyne R, Portmann B, Samyn M, et al.: Chronic liver disease related to 6-thioguanine in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. J Hepatol 44 (2): 407-10, 2006.
  33. Rawat D, Gillett PM, Devadason D, et al.: Long-term follow-up of children with 6-thioguanine-related chronic hepatoxicity following treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 53 (5): 478-9, 2011.
  34. Green DM, Norkool P, Breslow NE, et al.: Severe hepatic toxicity after treatment with vincristine and dactinomycin using single-dose or divided-dose schedules: a report from the National Wilms' Tumor Study. J Clin Oncol 8 (9): 1525-30, 1990.
  35. Sulis ML, Bessmertny O, Granowetter L, et al.: Veno-occlusive disease in pediatric patients receiving actinomycin D and vincristine only for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26 (12): 843-6, 2004.
  36. McDonald GB: Hepatobiliary complications of hematopoietic cell transplantation, 40 years on. Hepatology 51 (4): 1450-60, 2010.
  37. Dawson LA, Ten Haken RK: Partial volume tolerance of the liver to radiation. Semin Radiat Oncol 15 (4): 279-83, 2005.
  38. Milano MT, Constine LS, Okunieff P: Normal tissue tolerance dose metrics for radiation therapy of major organs. Semin Radiat Oncol 17 (2): 131-40, 2007.
  39. Pan CC, Kavanagh BD, Dawson LA, et al.: Radiation-associated liver injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76 (3 Suppl): S94-100, 2010.
  40. Bhanot P, Cushing B, Philippart A, et al.: Hepatic irradiation and adriamycin cardiotoxicity. J Pediatr 95 (4): 561-3, 1979.
  41. Flentje M, Weirich A, Pötter R, et al.: Hepatotoxicity in irradiated nephroblastoma patients during postoperative treatment according to SIOP9/GPOH. Radiother Oncol 31 (3): 222-8, 1994.
  42. Kun LE, Camitta BM: Hepatopathy following irradiation and adriamycin. Cancer 42 (1): 81-4, 1978.
  43. Tefft M: Radiation related toxicities in National Wilms' Tumor Study Number 1. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2 (5-6): 455-63, 1977 May-Jun.
  44. Castellino S, Muir A, Shah A, et al.: Hepato-biliary late effects in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54 (5): 663-9, 2010.
  45. Aricò M, Maggiore G, Silini E, et al.: Hepatitis C virus infection in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 84 (9): 2919-22, 1994.
  46. Castellino S, Lensing S, Riely C, et al.: The epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C infection in survivors of childhood cancer: an update of the St Jude Children's Research Hospital hepatitis C seropositive cohort. Blood 103 (7): 2460-6, 2004.
  47. Cesaro S, Petris MG, Rossetti F, et al.: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection after treatment for pediatric malignancy. Blood 90 (3): 1315-20, 1997.
  48. Fink FM, Höcker-Schulz S, Mor W, et al.: Association of hepatitis C virus infection with chronic liver disease in paediatric cancer patients. Eur J Pediatr 152 (6): 490-2, 1993.
  49. Locasciulli A, Testa M, Pontisso P, et al.: Hepatitis C virus genotypes and liver disease in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 19 (3): 237-40, 1997.
  50. Locasciulli A, Testa M, Pontisso P, et al.: Prevalence and natural history of hepatitis C infection in patients cured of childhood leukemia. Blood 90 (11): 4628-33, 1997.
  51. Paul IM, Sanders J, Ruggiero F, et al.: Chronic hepatitis C virus infections in leukemia survivors: prevalence, viral load, and severity of liver disease. Blood 93 (11): 3672-7, 1999.
  52. Lansdale M, Castellino S, Marina N, et al.: Knowledge of hepatitis C virus screening in long-term pediatric cancer survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 116 (4): 974-82, 2010.
  53. Mahmoud H, Schell M, Pui CH: Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer. Cancer 67 (5): 1439-42, 1991.
  54. Safford SD, Safford KM, Martin P, et al.: Management of cholelithiasis in pediatric patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation. J Pediatr Surg 36 (1): 86-90, 2001.
  55. Sudour H, Mainard L, Baumann C, et al.: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver following hematopoietic SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 43 (2): 127-32, 2009.
  56. Lee MH, Yoo SY, Kim JH, et al.: Hypervascular hepatic nodules in childhood cancer survivors: clinical and imaging features. Clin Imaging 36 (4): 301-7, 2012 Jul-Aug.
  57. Wanless IR: Micronodular transformation (nodular regenerative hyperplasia) of the liver: a report of 64 cases among 2,500 autopsies and a new classification of benign hepatocellular nodules. Hepatology 11 (5): 787-97, 1990.
  58. Brisse H, Servois V, Bouche B, et al.: Hepatic regenerating nodules: a mimic of recurrent cancer in children. Pediatr Radiol 30 (6): 386-93, 2000.
  59. Chu WC, Roebuck DJ: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver simulating metastases following treatment for bilateral Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 41 (1): 85-7, 2003.
  60. Halonen P, Mattila J, Ruuska T, et al.: Liver histology after current intensified therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: microvesicular fatty change and siderosis are the main findings. Med Pediatr Oncol 40 (3): 148-54, 2003.
  61. Tomita Y, Ishiguro H, Yasuda Y, et al.: High incidence of fatty liver and insulin resistance in long-term adult survivors of childhood SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 46 (3): 416-25, 2011.
  62. de Vathaire F, El-Fayech C, Ben Ayed FF, et al.: Radiation dose to the pancreas and risk of diabetes mellitus in childhood cancer survivors: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol 13 (10): 1002-10, 2012.
1|2|3|4|5
1|2|3|4|5

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Building a Support System
Blog
cancer fighting foods
SLIDESHOW
 
precancerous lesions slideshow
SLIDESHOW
quit smoking tips
SLIDESHOW
 
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
Blog
what is your cancer risk
HEALTH CHECK
 
colorectal cancer treatment advances
Video
breast cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
prostate cancer overview
SLIDESHOW
lung cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
Actor Michael Douglas
Article