Table 3. Clinical Studies of Acupuncture: Nausea and Vomitinga
CT = controlled trial; EA = electroacupuncture; No. = number; N/V = nausea and vomiting; RCT = randomized controlled trial.
a See text and the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms for additional information and definition of terms.
b Number of patients treated plus number of patient controls may not equal number of patients enrolled; number of patients enrolled equals number of patients initially considered by the researcher who conducted a study; number of patients treated equals number of enrolled patients who were given the treatment being studied AND for whom results were reported; historical control subjects are not included in number of patients enrolled.
c Strongest evidence reported that the treatment under study has activity or improves the well-being of cancer patients.
d Concurrent therapy for symptoms treated (not cancer).
e For information about levels of evidence analysis and an explanation of the level of evidence scores, see Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
fP < .001, low-frequency EA at classical antiemetic acupuncture points daily versus minimal needling at control points with sham EA versus no adjunct needling.
gP < .001, EA versus sham EA.
hP < .001, surface electrodes versus rubber electrodes.
iP < .00059.
jP < .02, acupressure versus acupressure at a sham point.
kP < .05, acupuncture versus noninvasive placebo acupuncture.
lP < .05, acupressure and acustimulation wrist bands versus no treatment.
|Reference Citation(s)||Type of Study||Condition Treated||No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb||Strongest Benefit Reportedc||Concurrent Therapyd||Level of Evidence Scoree|
||| RCT||N/V related to high-dose chemotherapy for breast cancer||104; 37; 67 (sham EA or no EA)||Less N/V in EA groupf||Yes (prochlorperazine, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine)||1iiC|
|[23,29,30]||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||10; 10 EA; 10 sham EA (crossover study)||Significantly less N/V than controlg||Yes (metoclopramide)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||100 (these patients were used more than once because of nature of crossover study); 27 surface electrodes; 11 rubber electrodes; 14 crossover study; 24 transcutaneous electrical stimulation||75% achieved considerable benefith||Yes (metoclopramide, thiethylperazine, prochlorperazine, cyclizine, lorazepam, and steroid)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||16 (the same 16 patients treated twice in a crossover study); 16 ondansetron plus transcutaneous electrical stimulation; 16 cross-over treatment ondansetron only ||Symptom-free patient days: 58.8%i||Yes (ondansetron)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||53 enrolled; 38 completed; 38 acupressure; 38 crossover to acupressure at a sham point||55% reduction in N/Vj||Yes (antiemetics)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from high-dose chemotherapy||80; 41 acupuncture; 39 noninvasive placebo acupuncture||Nonek||Yes (ondansetron)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||739; 233 bilateral acupressure bands and 234 transcutaneous electrical stimulation bands; 233 no bands; 39 not evaluable||Less N/V in treatment groups than in controll||Yes (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, prochlorperazine, and/or others)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||142; 48 acupuncture + vitamin B6 PC6 point injection; 46 vitamin B6; 48 acupuncture||Fewer emesis episodes||Yes (diazepam, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, and granisetron)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||36; 17 acupressure; 19 control ||Significantly lower N/V ||Yes (antiemetics)||1iiC|
|||Nonrandomized controlled trial ||N/V from chemotherapy||105; EA at P6 ||63%, complete relief, at least 8 h||Yes (metoclopramide; prednisolone)||2C|
|[27,29]||Consecutive case study||N/V from chemotherapy||40; 40 acupressure||8-24 h relief||Yes (not specified)||3iiC|
|||CT||N/V from chemotherapy||43; 38 10 Hz EA; 5 sham (crossover subset)||8-10 h relief; 32 patients had complete relief||Yes (antiemetics) ||2C|
|||CT||N/V from chemotherapy||18; 18 acupressure bands; 18 (crossover study-incorrect placement of acupressure bands)||Effective for N/V||Yes (antiemetics: prochlorperazine, maxalon, and domperidone suppository)||2C|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||N/V from chemotherapy||26; 26 acupuncture; 51 historical controls-no acupuncture||Mean no. of episodes and duration of N/V reduced||Yes (metoclopramide,dexamethasone, and diphenhydramine)||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series (pilot study)||N/V from chemotherapy||15; 15 EA; none||12 patients-no symptoms for 8 h||Yes (antiemetic: metoclopramide)||3iiiC|
|||Consecutive, uncontrolled case series||N/V from chemotherapy mean no. of emesis 7-3||27; no controls||10 patients had complete response to EA and had no vomiting||Yes (antiemetics: either ondansetron 8 mg or granisetron 3 mg)||3iiiC|
|||RCT||N/V from moderate to highly emetogenic chemotherapy||160; 96; 54||Decreased delayed N/V for acupressure||Yes (anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and an antiemetic)||1iiC|