Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Melanoma

Table 7. Characteristics of Common Models for Estimating the Likelihood of aCDKN2AMutation continued...

The question of whether the lesions found through screening are programmed to progress or whether they will grow very slowly and never progress to metastatic disease has not been answered.[141] One study showed that skin self-examination might prevent the formation of melanomas and that skin self-examination was associated with reduced 5-year mortality. The primary preventive effect could be biased by the fact that healthy individuals who participate in studies are somewhat more likely to participate in screening activities.[142] The 63% reduction in mortality observed in that study was not statistically significant. Therefore, until a randomized trial of screening and mortality is undertaken, the utility of general population screening remains uncertain.

Nonetheless, it is well documented that, when a patient is under the care of a dermatologist, his or her second melanoma is diagnosed at a thinner Breslow depth than the index melanoma.[143,144,145] As survival is inversely correlated with Breslow depth for melanoma, early diagnosis leads to better prognosis.

Level of evidence: 5

Primary prevention

Primary prevention for melanoma consists of avoiding intense intermittent exposure to UV radiation, both solar and nonsolar. It should be stressed that the dose-response levels for such exposure are not defined, but that large, sporadic doses of UV radiation on skin are those epidemiologically most associated with later development of melanoma. Sunburn is a marker of that exposure, so that the amount of time spent in the sun should be calculated to avoid sunburn if at all possible.[146] Tanning beds should be avoided, as studies suggest that they increase the risk of melanoma.[147,148]

Primary prevention should stress the need for caution in the sun and protection in the form of clothing, shade, and sunscreens when long periods of time are spent outdoors or at times of day when sunburn is likely. High-risk patients should understand that the application of sunscreens should not be used to prolong the time they spend in the sun because UV radiation makes its way through the sunscreen over time.[149,150] However, regular sunscreen use has been shown to reduce melanoma incidence in a prospective, randomized controlled trial.[151]

Level of evidence: 1aii


As described in the PDQ summary on Melanoma Treatment, therapeutic options range widely from local excision in early melanoma to chemotherapy, radiation, and aggressive management in metastatic melanoma. Our best defense against melanoma as a whole is to encourage sun-protective behaviors, regular skin examinations, and patient skin self-awareness in an effort to decrease high-risk behaviors and optimize early detection of potentially malignant lesions.


  1. Berwick M, Orlow I, Hummer AJ, et al.: The prevalence of CDKN2A germ-line mutations and relative risk for cutaneous malignant melanoma: an international population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (8): 1520-5, 2006.
  2. Zanetti R, Rosso S, Martinez C, et al.: Comparison of risk patterns in carcinoma and melanoma of the skin in men: a multi-centre case-case-control study. Br J Cancer 94 (5): 743-51, 2006.
  3. Neale RE, Forman D, Murphy MF, et al.: Site-specific occurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancers in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Br J Cancer 93 (5): 597-601, 2005.
  4. Nelemans PJ, Rampen FH, Ruiter DJ, et al.: An addition to the controversy on sunlight exposure and melanoma risk: a meta-analytical approach. J Clin Epidemiol 48 (11): 1331-42, 1995.
  5. Elwood JM, Jopson J: Melanoma and sun exposure: an overview of published studies. Int J Cancer 73 (2): 198-203, 1997.
  6. Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al.: Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: III. Family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors. Eur J Cancer 41 (14): 2040-59, 2005.
  7. Gallagher RP, Elwood JM, Yang CP: Is chronic sunlight exposure important in accounting for increases in melanoma incidence? Int J Cancer 44 (5): 813-5, 1989.
  8. Iscovich J, Howe GR: Cancer incidence patterns (1972-91) among migrants from the Soviet Union to Israel. Cancer Causes Control 9 (1): 29-36, 1998.
  9. McMichael AJ, Giles GG: Cancer in migrants to Australia: extending the descriptive epidemiological data. Cancer Res 48 (3): 751-6, 1988.
  10. Khlat M, Vail A, Parkin M, et al.: Mortality from melanoma in migrants to Australia: variation by age at arrival and duration of stay. Am J Epidemiol 135 (10): 1103-13, 1992.
  11. Lea CS, Scotto JA, Buffler PA, et al.: Ambient UVB and melanoma risk in the United States: a case-control analysis. Ann Epidemiol 17 (6): 447-53, 2007.
  12. Rosso S, Zanetti R, Martinez C, et al.: The multicentre south European study 'Helios'. II: Different sun exposure patterns in the aetiology of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Br J Cancer 73 (11): 1447-54, 1996.
  13. Berwick M: Counterpoint: sunscreen use is a safe and effective approach to skin cancer prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16 (10): 1923-4, 2007.
  14. Gruber S, Armstrong B: Cutaneous and ocular melanoma. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF Jr, eds.: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp 1196-1217.
  15. Wennborg H, Yuen J, Nise G, et al.: Cancer incidence and work place exposure among Swedish biomedical research personnel. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74 (8): 558-64, 2001.
  16. Ron E, Preston DL, Kishikawa M, et al.: Skin tumor risk among atomic-bomb survivors in Japan. Cancer Causes Control 9 (4): 393-401, 1998.
  17. Sigurdson AJ, Doody MM, Rao RS, et al.: Cancer incidence in the US radiologic technologists health study, 1983-1998. Cancer 97 (12): 3080-9, 2003.
  18. Telle-Lamberton M, Bergot D, Gagneau M, et al.: Cancer mortality among French Atomic Energy Commission workers. Am J Ind Med 45 (1): 34-44, 2004.
  19. Sont WN, Zielinski JM, Ashmore JP, et al.: First analysis of cancer incidence and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. Am J Epidemiol 153 (4): 309-18, 2001.
  20. Pukkala E, Aspholm R, Auvinen A, et al.: Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study. BMJ 325 (7364): 567, 2002.
  21. Tynes T, Klaeboe L, Haldorsen T: Residential and occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields and malignant melanoma: a population based study. Occup Environ Med 60 (5): 343-7, 2003.
  22. Lundberg I, Gustavsson A, Holmberg B, et al.: Mortality and cancer incidence among PVC-processing workers in Sweden. Am J Ind Med 23 (2): 313-9, 1993.
  23. Langård S, Rosenberg J, Andersen A, et al.: Incidence of cancer among workers exposed to vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride manufacture. Occup Environ Med 57 (1): 65-8, 2000.
  24. Loomis D, Browning SR, Schenck AP, et al.: Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Occup Environ Med 54 (10): 720-8, 1997.
  25. Haldorsen T, Reitan JB, Tveten U: Cancer incidence among Norwegian airline cabin attendants. Int J Epidemiol 30 (4): 825-30, 2001.
  26. Gundestrup M, Storm HH: Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia and other cancers in commercial jet cockpit crew: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 354 (9195): 2029-31, 1999.
  27. Rafnsson V, Hrafnkelsson J, Tulinius H: Incidence of cancer among commercial airline pilots. Occup Environ Med 57 (3): 175-9, 2000.
  28. Linnersjö A, Hammar N, Dammström BG, et al.: Cancer incidence in airline cabin crew: experience from Sweden. Occup Environ Med 60 (11): 810-4, 2003.
  29. Hammar N, Linnersjö A, Alfredsson L, et al.: Cancer incidence in airline and military pilots in Sweden 1961-1996. Aviat Space Environ Med 73 (1): 2-7, 2002.
  30. Rafnsson V, Tulinius H, Jónasson JG, et al.: Risk of breast cancer in female flight attendants: a population-based study (Iceland). Cancer Causes Control 12 (2): 95-101, 2001.
  31. Blettner M, Zeeb H, Auvinen A, et al.: Mortality from cancer and other causes among male airline cockpit crew in Europe. Int J Cancer 106 (6): 946-52, 2003.
  32. Pukkala E, Aspholm R, Auvinen A, et al.: Cancer incidence among 10,211 airline pilots: a Nordic study. Aviat Space Environ Med 74 (7): 699-706, 2003.
  33. Linet MS, Malker HS, Chow WH, et al.: Occupational risks for cutaneous melanoma among men in Sweden. J Occup Environ Med 37 (9): 1127-35, 1995.
  34. Perez-Gomez B, Pollán M, Gustavsson P, et al.: Cutaneous melanoma: hints from occupational risks by anatomic site in Swedish men. Occup Environ Med 61 (2): 117-26, 2004.
  35. Gun RT, Pratt N, Ryan P, et al.: Update of mortality and cancer incidence in the Australian petroleum industry cohort. Occup Environ Med 63 (7): 476-81, 2006.
  36. Guo X, Fujino Y, Ye X, et al.: Association between multi-level inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and skin lesions in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 3 (3): 262-7, 2006.
  37. Chen Y, Hall M, Graziano JH, et al.: A prospective study of blood selenium levels and the risk of arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16 (2): 207-13, 2007.
  38. Beane Freeman LE, Dennis LK, Lynch CF, et al.: Toenail arsenic content and cutaneous melanoma in Iowa. Am J Epidemiol 160 (7): 679-87, 2004.
  39. Sarna T, Froncisz W, Hyde JS: Cu2+ probe of metal-ion binding sites in melanin using electron paramagentic resonance spectroscopy. II. Natural melanin. Arch Biochem Biophys 202 (1): 304-13, 1980.
  40. Dubrow R: Malignant melanoma in the printing industry. Am J Ind Med 10 (2): 119-26, 1986.
  41. Nielsen H, Henriksen L, Olsen JH: Malignant melanoma among lithographers. Scand J Work Environ Health 22 (2): 108-11, 1996.
  42. Bouchardy C, Schüler G, Minder C, et al.: Cancer risk by occupation and socioeconomic group among men--a study by the Association of Swiss Cancer Registries. Scand J Work Environ Health 28 (Suppl 1): 1-88, 2002.
  43. Nelemans PJ, Groenendal H, Kiemeney LA, et al.: Effect of intermittent exposure to sunlight on melanoma risk among indoor workers and sun-sensitive individuals. Environ Health Perspect 101 (3): 252-5, 1993.
  44. Nichols L, Sorahan T: Cancer incidence and cancer mortality in a cohort of UK semiconductor workers, 1970-2002. Occup Med (Lond) 55 (8): 625-30, 2005.
  45. Clapp RW: Mortality among US employees of a large computer manufacturing company: 1969-2001. Environ Health 5: 30, 2006.
  46. Sinks T, Steele G, Smith AB, et al.: Mortality among workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Am J Epidemiol 136 (4): 389-98, 1992.
  47. Nyrén O, McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, et al.: Cancer risk after hip replacement with metal implants: a population-based cohort study in Sweden. J Natl Cancer Inst 87 (1): 28-33, 1995.
  48. Onega T, Baron J, MacKenzie T: Cancer after total joint arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (8): 1532-7, 2006.
  49. Visuri TI, Pukkala E, Pulkkinen P, et al.: Cancer incidence and causes of death among total hip replacement patients: a review based on Nordic cohorts with a special emphasis on metal-on-metal bearings. Proc Inst Mech Eng [H] 220 (2): 399-407, 2006.
  50. Scherer D, Kumar R: Genetics of pigmentation in skin cancer--a review. Mutat Res 705 (2): 141-53, 2010.
  51. Fitzpatrick TB: The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI. Arch Dermatol 124 (6): 869-71, 1988.
  52. Roush GC, Nordlund JJ, Forget B, et al.: Independence of dysplastic nevi from total nevi in determining risk for nonfamilial melanoma. Prev Med 17 (3): 273-9, 1988.
  53. Halpern AC, Guerry D 4th, Elder DE, et al.: Dysplastic nevi as risk markers of sporadic (nonfamilial) melanoma. A case-control study. Arch Dermatol 127 (7): 995-9, 1991.
  54. Garbe C, Büttner P, Weiss J, et al.: Risk factors for developing cutaneous melanoma and criteria for identifying persons at risk: multicenter case-control study of the Central Malignant Melanoma Registry of the German Dermatological Society. J Invest Dermatol 102 (5): 695-9, 1994.
  55. Tucker MA, Halpern A, Holly EA, et al.: Clinically recognized dysplastic nevi. A central risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. JAMA 277 (18): 1439-44, 1997.
  56. Marghoob AA, Kopf AW, Rigel DS, et al.: Risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in patients with 'classic' atypical-mole syndrome. A case-control study. Arch Dermatol 130 (8): 993-8, 1994.
  57. Newton-Bishop JA, Chang YM, Iles MM, et al.: Melanocytic nevi, nevus genes, and melanoma risk in a large case-control study in the United Kingdom. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19 (8): 2043-54, 2010.
  58. Dinh QQ, Chong AH: Melanoma in organ transplant recipients: the old enemy finds a new battleground. Australas J Dermatol 48 (4): 199-207, 2007.
  59. Brandt A, Sundquist J, Hemminki K: Risk of incident and fatal melanoma in individuals with a family history of incident or fatal melanoma or any cancer. Br J Dermatol 165 (2): 342-8, 2011.
  60. Olsen CM, Carroll HJ, Whiteman DC: Familial melanoma: a meta-analysis and estimates of attributable fraction. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19 (1): 65-73, 2010.
  61. Hemminki K, Zhang H, Czene K: Incidence trends and familial risks in invasive and in situ cutaneous melanoma by sun-exposed body sites. Int J Cancer 104 (6): 764-71, 2003.
  62. Goldstein AM, Chan M, Harland M, et al.: High-risk melanoma susceptibility genes and pancreatic cancer, neural system tumors, and uveal melanoma across GenoMEL. Cancer Res 66 (20): 9818-28, 2006.
  63. Bishop JN, Harland M, Bishop DT: The genetics of melanoma. Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 67 (6): 299-304, 2006.
  64. Goggins WB, Tsao H: A population-based analysis of risk factors for a second primary cutaneous melanoma among melanoma survivors. Cancer 97 (3): 639-43, 2003.
  65. Slingluff CL Jr, Vollmer RT, Seigler HF: Multiple primary melanoma: incidence and risk factors in 283 patients. Surgery 113 (3): 330-9, 1993.
  66. Giles G, Staples M, McCredie M, et al.: Multiple primary melanomas: an analysis of cancer registry data from Victoria and New South Wales. Melanoma Res 5 (6): 433-8, 1995.
  67. Begg CB, Orlow I, Hummer AJ, et al.: Lifetime risk of melanoma in CDKN2A mutation carriers in a population-based sample. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (20): 1507-15, 2005.
  68. Marghoob AA, Slade J, Salopek TG, et al.: Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are important risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Screening implications. Cancer 75 (2 Suppl): 707-14, 1995.
  69. Nugent Z, Demers AA, Wiseman MC, et al.: Risk of second primary cancer and death following a diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14 (11 Pt 1): 2584-90, 2005.
  70. Rosenberg CA, Khandekar J, Greenland P, et al.: Cutaneous melanoma in postmenopausal women after nonmelanoma skin carcinoma: the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Cancer 106 (3): 654-63, 2006.
  71. Karagas MR, Greenberg ER, Mott LA, et al.: Occurrence of other cancers among patients with prior basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7 (2): 157-61, 1998.
  72. Chen J, Ruczinski I, Jorgensen TJ, et al.: Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk for subsequent malignancy. J Natl Cancer Inst 100 (17): 1215-22, 2008.
  73. Nikolaou V, Kang X, Stratigos A, et al.: Comprehensive mutational analysis of CDKN2A and CDK4 in Greek patients with cutaneous melanoma. Br J Dermatol 165 (6): 1219-22, 2011.
  74. Borg A, Johannsson U, Johannsson O, et al.: Novel germline p16 mutation in familial malignant melanoma in southern Sweden. Cancer Res 56 (11): 2497-500, 1996.
  75. Borg A, Sandberg T, Nilsson K, et al.: High frequency of multiple melanomas and breast and pancreas carcinomas in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families. J Natl Cancer Inst 92 (15): 1260-6, 2000.
  76. Hashemi J, Bendahl PO, Sandberg T, et al.: Haplotype analysis and age estimation of the 113insR CDKN2A founder mutation in Swedish melanoma families. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 31 (2): 107-16, 2001.
  77. Ciotti P, Struewing JP, Mantelli M, et al.: A single genetic origin for the G101W CDKN2A mutation in 20 melanoma-prone families. Am J Hum Genet 67 (2): 311-9, 2000.
  78. Liu L, Dilworth D, Gao L, et al.: Mutation of the CDKN2A 5' UTR creates an aberrant initiation codon and predisposes to melanoma. Nat Genet 21 (1): 128-32, 1999.
  79. Pollock PM, Spurr N, Bishop T, et al.: Haplotype analysis of two recurrent CDKN2A mutations in 10 melanoma families: evidence for common founders and independent mutations. Hum Mutat 11 (6): 424-31, 1998.
  80. Larre Borges A, Borges AL, Cuéllar F, et al.: CDKN2A mutations in melanoma families from Uruguay. Br J Dermatol 161 (3): 536-41, 2009.
  81. Bishop DT, Demenais F, Goldstein AM, et al.: Geographical variation in the penetrance of CDKN2A mutations for melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 94 (12): 894-903, 2002.
  82. Cust AE, Harland M, Makalic E, et al.: Melanoma risk for CDKN2A mutation carriers who are relatives of population-based case carriers in Australia and the UK. J Med Genet 48 (4): 266-72, 2011.
  83. Santillan AA, Cherpelis BS, Glass LF, et al.: Management of familial melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer syndromes. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 18 (1): 73-98, viii, 2009.
  84. Yang XR, Pfeiffer RM, Wheeler W, et al.: Identification of modifier genes for cutaneous malignant melanoma in melanoma-prone families with and without CDKN2A mutations. Int J Cancer 125 (12): 2912-7, 2009.
  85. Chaudru V, Lo MT, Lesueur F, et al.: Protective effect of copy number polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase T1 gene on melanoma risk in presence of CDKN2A mutations, MC1R variants and host-related phenotypes. Fam Cancer 8 (4): 371-7, 2009.
  86. van der Rhee JI, Krijnen P, Gruis NA, et al.: Clinical and histologic characteristics of malignant melanoma in families with a germline mutation in CDKN2A. J Am Acad Dermatol 65 (2): 281-8, 2011.
  87. Pedace L, De Simone P, Castori M, et al.: Clinical features predicting identification of CDKN2A mutations in Italian patients with familial cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol 35 (6): e116-20, 2011.
  88. Mukherjee B, Delancey JO, Raskin L, et al.: Risk of non-melanoma cancers in first-degree relatives of CDKN2A mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 104 (12): 953-6, 2012.
  89. Binni F, Antigoni I, De Simone P, et al.: Novel and recurrent p14 mutations in Italian familial melanoma. Clin Genet 77 (6): 581-6, 2010.
  90. Goldstein AM, Fraser MC, Struewing JP, et al.: Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in melanoma-prone kindreds with p16INK4 mutations. N Engl J Med 333 (15): 970-4, 1995.
  91. Whelan AJ, Bartsch D, Goodfellow PJ: Brief report: a familial syndrome of pancreatic cancer and melanoma with a mutation in the CDKN2 tumor-suppressor gene. N Engl J Med 333 (15): 975-7, 1995.
  92. Lindor NM, McMaster ML, Lindor CJ, et al.: Concise handbook of familial cancer susceptibility syndromes - second edition. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (38): 1-93, 2008.
  93. de Snoo FA, Bishop DT, Bergman W, et al.: Increased risk of cancer other than melanoma in CDKN2A founder mutation (p16-Leiden)-positive melanoma families. Clin Cancer Res 14 (21): 7151-7, 2008.
  94. Goldstein AM: Familial melanoma, pancreatic cancer and germline CDKN2A mutations. Hum Mutat 23 (6): 630, 2004.
  95. Vasen HF, Gruis NA, Frants RR, et al.: Risk of developing pancreatic cancer in families with familial atypical multiple mole melanoma associated with a specific 19 deletion of p16 (p16-Leiden). Int J Cancer 87 (6): 809-11, 2000.
  96. McWilliams RR, Bamlet WR, Rabe KG, et al.: Association of family history of specific cancers with a younger age of onset of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4 (9): 1143-7, 2006.
  97. Goldstein AM, Chan M, Harland M, et al.: Features associated with germline CDKN2A mutations: a GenoMEL study of melanoma-prone families from three continents. J Med Genet 44 (2): 99-106, 2007.
  98. Goldstein AM, Struewing JP, Chidambaram A, et al.: Genotype-phenotype relationships in U.S. melanoma-prone families with CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst 92 (12): 1006-10, 2000.
  99. Bartsch DK, Sina-Frey M, Lang S, et al.: CDKN2A germline mutations in familial pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg 236 (6): 730-7, 2002.
  100. Bartsch DK, Langer P, Habbe N, et al.: Clinical and genetic analysis of 18 pancreatic carcinoma/melanoma-prone families. Clin Genet 77 (4): 333-41, 2010.
  101. Kaufman DK, Kimmel DW, Parisi JE, et al.: A familial syndrome with cutaneous malignant melanoma and cerebral astrocytoma. Neurology 43 (9): 1728-31, 1993.
  102. Azizi E, Friedman J, Pavlotsky F, et al.: Familial cutaneous malignant melanoma and tumors of the nervous system. A hereditary cancer syndrome. Cancer 76 (9): 1571-8, 1995.
  103. Randerson-Moor JA, Harland M, Williams S, et al.: A germline deletion of p14(ARF) but not CDKN2A in a melanoma-neural system tumour syndrome family. Hum Mol Genet 10 (1): 55-62, 2001.
  104. Zuo L, Weger J, Yang Q, et al.: Germline mutations in the p16INK4a binding domain of CDK4 in familial melanoma. Nat Genet 12 (1): 97-9, 1996.
  105. Soufir N, Avril MF, Chompret A, et al.: Prevalence of p16 and CDK4 germline mutations in 48 melanoma-prone families in France. The French Familial Melanoma Study Group. Hum Mol Genet 7 (2): 209-16, 1998.
  106. Molven A, Grimstvedt MB, Steine SJ, et al.: A large Norwegian family with inherited malignant melanoma, multiple atypical nevi, and CDK4 mutation. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 44 (1): 10-8, 2005.
  107. Shennan MG, Badin AC, Walsh S, et al.: Lack of germline CDK6 mutations in familial melanoma. Oncogene 19 (14): 1849-52, 2000.
  108. Bradford PT, Goldstein AM, Tamura D, et al.: Cancer and neurologic degeneration in xeroderma pigmentosum: long term follow-up characterises the role of DNA repair. J Med Genet 48 (3): 168-76, 2011.
  109. Kraemer KH, Lee MM, Scotto J: DNA repair protects against cutaneous and internal neoplasia: evidence from xeroderma pigmentosum. Carcinogenesis 5 (4): 511-4, 1984.
  110. Kraemer KH, Lee MM, Andrews AD, et al.: The role of sunlight and DNA repair in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. The xeroderma pigmentosum paradigm. Arch Dermatol 130 (8): 1018-21, 1994.
  111. Blankenburg S, König IR, Moessner R, et al.: Assessment of 3 xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene polymorphisms and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a case-control study. Carcinogenesis 26 (6): 1085-90, 2005.
  112. Ohta M, Berd D, Shimizu M, et al.: Deletion mapping of chromosome region 9p21-p22 surrounding the CDKN2 locus in melanoma. Int J Cancer 65 (6): 762-7, 1996.
  113. Gillanders E, Juo SH, Holland EA, et al.: Localization of a novel melanoma susceptibility locus to 1p22. Am J Hum Genet 73 (2): 301-13, 2003.
  114. Walker GJ, Indsto JO, Sood R, et al.: Deletion mapping suggests that the 1p22 melanoma susceptibility gene is a tumor suppressor localized to a 9-Mb interval. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 41 (1): 56-64, 2004.
  115. Teerlink C, Farnham J, Allen-Brady K, et al.: A unique genome-wide association analysis in extended Utah high-risk pedigrees identifies a novel melanoma risk variant on chromosome arm 10q. Hum Genet 131 (1): 77-85, 2012.
  116. Höiom V, Tuominen R, Hansson J: Genome-wide linkage analysis of Swedish families to identify putative susceptibility loci for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 50 (12): 1076-84, 2011.
  117. Box NF, Duffy DL, Chen W, et al.: MC1R genotype modifies risk of melanoma in families segregating CDKN2A mutations. Am J Hum Genet 69 (4): 765-73, 2001.
  118. Scherer D, Nagore E, Bermejo JL, et al.: Melanocortin receptor 1 variants and melanoma risk: a study of 2 European populations. Int J Cancer 125 (8): 1868-75, 2009.
  119. Kanetsky PA, Panossian S, Elder DE, et al.: Does MC1R genotype convey information about melanoma risk beyond risk phenotypes? Cancer 116 (10): 2416-28, 2010.
  120. Williams PF, Olsen CM, Hayward NK, et al.: Melanocortin 1 receptor and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis and estimates of population burden. Int J Cancer 129 (7): 1730-40, 2011.
  121. Ferrucci LM, Cartmel B, Molinaro AM, et al.: Host phenotype characteristics and MC1R in relation to early-onset basal cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol 132 (4): 1272-9, 2012.
  122. Dwyer T, Stankovich JM, Blizzard L, et al.: Does the addition of information on genotype improve prediction of the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer beyond that obtained from skin phenotype? Am J Epidemiol 159 (9): 826-33, 2004.
  123. Han J, Kraft P, Colditz GA, et al.: Melanocortin 1 receptor variants and skin cancer risk. Int J Cancer 119 (8): 1976-84, 2006.
  124. Demenais F, Mohamdi H, Chaudru V, et al.: Association of MC1R variants and host phenotypes with melanoma risk in CDKN2A mutation carriers: a GenoMEL study. J Natl Cancer Inst 102 (20): 1568-83, 2010.
  125. Fargnoli MC, Gandini S, Peris K, et al.: MC1R variants increase melanoma risk in families with CDKN2A mutations: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 46 (8): 1413-20, 2010.
  126. Davies JR, Randerson-Moor J, Kukalizch K, et al.: Inherited variants in the MC1R gene and survival from cutaneous melanoma: a BioGenoMEL study. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 25 (3): 384-94, 2012.
  127. Yokoyama S, Woods SL, Boyle GM, et al.: A novel recurrent mutation in MITF predisposes to familial and sporadic melanoma. Nature 480 (7375): 99-103, 2011.
  128. Greene MH: The genetics of hereditary melanoma and nevi. 1998 update. Cancer 86 (11 Suppl): 2464-77, 1999.
  129. Cho E, Rosner BA, Feskanich D, et al.: Risk factors and individual probabilities of melanoma for whites. J Clin Oncol 23 (12): 2669-75, 2005.
  130. Fears TR, Guerry D 4th, Pfeiffer RM, et al.: Identifying individuals at high risk of melanoma: a practical predictor of absolute risk. J Clin Oncol 24 (22): 3590-6, 2006.
  131. Niendorf KB, Goggins W, Yang G, et al.: MELPREDICT: a logistic regression model to estimate CDKN2A carrier probability. J Med Genet 43 (6): 501-6, 2006.
  132. Wang W, Niendorf KB, Patel D, et al.: Estimating CDKN2A carrier probability and personalizing cancer risk assessments in hereditary melanoma using MelaPRO. Cancer Res 70 (2): 552-9, 2010.
  133. Hansson J: Familial melanoma. Surg Clin North Am 88 (4): 897-916, viii, 2008.
  134. Kefford RF, Newton Bishop JA, Bergman W, et al.: Counseling and DNA testing for individuals perceived to be genetically predisposed to melanoma: A consensus statement of the Melanoma Genetics Consortium. J Clin Oncol 17 (10): 3245-51, 1999.
  135. Hansson J, Bergenmar M, Hofer PA, et al.: Monitoring of kindreds with hereditary predisposition for cutaneous melanoma and dysplastic nevus syndrome: results of a Swedish preventive program. J Clin Oncol 25 (19): 2819-24, 2007.
  136. Freedberg KA, Geller AC, Miller DR, et al.: Screening for malignant melanoma: A cost-effectiveness analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 41 (5 Pt 1): 738-45, 1999.
  137. Tucker MA, Fraser MC, Goldstein AM, et al.: A natural history of melanomas and dysplastic nevi: an atlas of lesions in melanoma-prone families. Cancer 94 (12): 3192-209, 2002.
  138. Parker JF, Florell SR, Alexander A, et al.: Pancreatic carcinoma surveillance in patients with familial melanoma. Arch Dermatol 139 (8): 1019-25, 2003.
  139. Rulyak SJ, Kimmey MB, Veenstra DL, et al.: Cost-effectiveness of pancreatic cancer screening in familial pancreatic cancer kindreds. Gastrointest Endosc 57 (1): 23-9, 2003.
  140. Crowson AN, Magro CM, Mihm MC: Prognosticators of melanoma, the melanoma report, and the sentinel lymph node. Mod Pathol 19 (Suppl 2): S71-87, 2006.
  141. Berwick M, Begg CB, Fine JA, et al.: Screening for cutaneous melanoma by skin self-examination. J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (1): 17-23, 1996.
  142. Olson SH, Kelsey JL, Pearson TA, et al.: Evaluation of random digit dialing as a method of control selection in case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol 135 (2): 210-22, 1992.
  143. Masri GD, Clark WH Jr, Guerry D 4th, et al.: Screening and surveillance of patients at high risk for malignant melanoma result in detection of earlier disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 22 (6 Pt 1): 1042-8, 1990.
  144. Carli P, De Giorgi V, Palli D, et al.: Dermatologist detection and skin self-examination are associated with thinner melanomas: results from a survey of the Italian Multidisciplinary Group on Melanoma. Arch Dermatol 139 (5): 607-12, 2003.
  145. van der Rhee JI, de Snoo FA, Vasen HF, et al.: Effectiveness and causes for failure of surveillance of CDKN2A-mutated melanoma families. J Am Acad Dermatol 65 (2): 289-96, 2011.
  146. Armstrong BK, Kricker A: The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer. J Photochem Photobiol B 63 (1-3): 8-18, 2001.
  147. International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer.: The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: A systematic review. Int J Cancer 120 (5): 1116-22, 2007.
  148. Fears TR, Sagebiel RW, Halpern A, et al.: Sunbeds and sunlamps: who used them and their risk for melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 24 (3): 574-81, 2011.
  149. Goldsmith L, Koh HK, Bewerse B, et al.: Proceedings from the national conference to develop a national skin cancer agenda. American Academy of Dermatology and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 8-10, 1995. J Am Acad Dermatol 34 (5 Pt 1): 822-3, 1996.
  150. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Council on Scientific Affairs. JAMA 262 (3): 380-4, 1989.
  151. Green AC, Williams GM, Logan V, et al.: Reduced melanoma after regular sunscreen use: randomized trial follow-up. J Clin Oncol 29 (3): 257-63, 2011.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Building a Support System
cancer fighting foods
precancerous lesions slideshow
quit smoking tips
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas