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Table 7. Characteristics of Common Models for Estimating the Likelihood of aCDKN2AMutation continued...

The question of whether the lesions found through screening are programmed to progress or whether they will grow very slowly and never progress to metastatic disease has not been answered.[141] One study showed that skin self-examination might prevent the formation of melanomas and that skin self-examination was associated with reduced 5-year mortality. The primary preventive effect could be biased by the fact that healthy individuals who participate in studies are somewhat more likely to participate in screening activities.[142] The 63% reduction in mortality observed in that study was not statistically significant. Therefore, until a randomized trial of screening and mortality is undertaken, the utility of general population screening remains uncertain.

Nonetheless, it is well documented that, when a patient is under the care of a dermatologist, his or her second melanoma is diagnosed at a thinner Breslow depth than the index melanoma.[143,144,145] As survival is inversely correlated with Breslow depth for melanoma, early diagnosis leads to better prognosis.

Level of evidence: 5

Primary prevention

Primary prevention for melanoma consists of avoiding intense intermittent exposure to UV radiation, both solar and nonsolar. It should be stressed that the dose-response levels for such exposure are not defined, but that large, sporadic doses of UV radiation on skin are those epidemiologically most associated with later development of melanoma. Sunburn is a marker of that exposure, so that the amount of time spent in the sun should be calculated to avoid sunburn if at all possible.[146] Tanning beds should be avoided, as studies suggest that they increase the risk of melanoma.[147,148]

Primary prevention should stress the need for caution in the sun and protection in the form of clothing, shade, and sunscreens when long periods of time are spent outdoors or at times of day when sunburn is likely. High-risk patients should understand that the application of sunscreens should not be used to prolong the time they spend in the sun because UV radiation makes its way through the sunscreen over time.[149,150] However, regular sunscreen use has been shown to reduce melanoma incidence in a prospective, randomized controlled trial.[151]

Level of evidence: 1aii


As described in the PDQ summary on Melanoma Treatment, therapeutic options range widely from local excision in early melanoma to chemotherapy, radiation, and aggressive management in metastatic melanoma. Our best defense against melanoma as a whole is to encourage sun-protective behaviors, regular skin examinations, and patient skin self-awareness in an effort to decrease high-risk behaviors and optimize early detection of potentially malignant lesions.


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Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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