To assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for people with cancer, the strength of the evidence (i.e., the levels of evidence) associated with each type of treatment is provided whenever possible. To qualify for a level of evidence analysis, a study must:
Be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Report on therapeuticoutcome or outcomes, such as tumorresponse, improvement in survival, or measured improvement...
The buccal mucosa (the lining of the inside of the cheeks).
The floor (bottom) of the mouth under the tongue.
The hard palate (the front of the roof of the mouth).
The retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth).
The middle part of the pharynx (throat) behind the mouth.
The back one third of the tongue.
The soft palate (the back of the roof of the mouth).
The side and back walls of the throat.
Most oral cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma.
See the following PDQ summaries for more information about oral cancer:
Oral Cancer Prevention
Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment
The number of new cases of oral cancer and the number of deaths from oral cancer have been decreasing slowly.
The number of new cases and deaths from oral cancer has slowly decreased over the past 30 years. However, the number of new cases of oral cancer caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased. One kind of HPV, called HPV 16, is often passed from one person to another during sexual activity.
Although oral cancer occurs in all adults, it occurs most commonly in older adults. Also, oral cancer occurs more often in blacks than in whites and in men than in women.
Tobacco and alcohol use can affect the risk of developing oral cancer.
Anything that increases the chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. People who think they may be at risk should discuss this with their doctor. Risk factors for oral cancer include the following:
Using tobacco products (includes cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless and chewing tobacco).
Heavy alcohol use.
Chewing betel nuts.
Being infected with a certain type of human papillomavirus (HPV).