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Oral Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Oral Cancer Prevention

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.

Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

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The following are risk factors for oral cancer:

Tobacco use

Using tobacco is the leading cause of oral cancer.

All forms of tobacco, including cigarettes, pipes, cigars, and chewing (smokeless) tobacco, can cause oral cancer. For cigarette smokers, the risk of oral cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Tobacco use is most likely to cause oral cancer in the floor of the mouth, but also causes cancer in other parts of mouth and throat.

The risk of oral cancer is greater in people who use both tobacco and alcohol than it is in people who use only tobacco or only alcohol.

Tobacco users who have had oral cancer may develop second cancers in the oral cavity or nearby areas. These areas include the nose, throat, vocal cords, esophagus, and trachea (windpipe). This is because the oral cavity and nearby areas have been exposed to the harmful substances in tobacco, and new cancers may form over time.

Alcohol use

Using alcohol is a major risk factor for oral cancer.

The risk of oral cancer increases with the number of alcoholic drinks consumed per day. The risk of oral cancer is about twice as high in people who have 3 to 4 alcoholic drinks per day compared to those who don't drink alcohol.

The risk of oral cancer is higher in people who use both alcohol and tobacco than it is in people who use only alcohol or only tobacco.

HPV infection

Being infected with a certain type of HPV virus, especially HPV type 16, increases the risk of oral cancer. HPV infection is spread mainly through sexual contact. People who have many oral sex partners have a higher risk of HPV infection. The number of cases of oral cancer caused by HPV infection is small but increasing.

Sun exposure

Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip cancer occurs most often on the lower lip.

The following is a protective factor for oral cancer:

Quitting smoking

Studies have shown that when people stop smoking cigarettes, their risk of oral cancer decreases by one-half (50%) within 5 years. Within 10 years of quitting, their risk of oral cancer is the same as for a person who never smoked cigarettes.

It is not clear whether avoiding certain risk factors will decrease the risk of oral cancer.

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