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    Levels of Evidence for Supportive and Palliative Care Studies (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Introduction

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    During the early phases of research in a new area, information relevant to the needs of patients and clinicians may come from a limited number of reports and data of varying strength. This information may include evidence from:

    • Well-designed prospective studies (e.g., randomized trials, nonrandomized trials, cohort studies, and case series).
    • Cross-sectional studies (e.g., correlational designs using various levels of analytic sophistication).
    • Retrospective studies (e.g., case-control studies, case series, and case reports).

    The studies may be interventional, may be observational, or may involve provider or patient self-reports or record reviews.

    In some cases, the best available evidence may reflect clinical/professional experience or expert consensus opinion. All sources may yield information relevant to patients and clinicians, who may be required to make management decisions before the best possible evidence is available.

    In view of this complexity, the PDQ Supportive and Palliative Care Editorial Board took a pragmatic approach to defining the levels of evidence that it would utilize. The levels used by the Board focus primarily on the strength of a study's design as appropriate to the questions being investigated. These levels should be easily understood by health professionals and serve as a starting point for discussing the strength of study results.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: May 28, 2015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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