Effects of Newcastle Disease Virus on Human Cancer Cells
The ability of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) to replicate efficiently in human cancer cells has been demonstrated in both laboratory studies and animal studies.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14] Further, several of these studies suggest that lytic strains of NDV are also oncolytic, and one study has demonstrated that expression of the RAC1 gene is necessary for NDV replication.
Incidence and Mortality
Estimated new cases and deaths from testicular cancer in the United States in 2014:
New cases: 8,820.
Testicular cancer is a highly treatable, usually curable, cancer that most often develops in young and middle-aged men. Most testicular cancers are germ cell tumors. For treatment planning, germ cell tumors are broadly divided into seminomas and nonseminomas because they have different prognostic and treatment algorithms. For patients with...
Lytic strain Roakin has been reported to kill human lymphoma B cells and T cells transformed in vitro from a Hodgkin lymphoma patient four to five times faster than it killed normal, resting human white blood cells.[4,5] This strain killed normal, proliferating human white blood cells in vitro, although at a lower rate than in cancer cells.
Lytic strain Italien (or Italian) has been shown to kill human squamous cell lung carcinoma, melanoma, breast carcinoma, and larynx carcinoma, but not cervical carcinoma, cells in vitro.
Overall, these results suggest that the lytic strains of NDV replicate well in some types of normal cells and replicate poorly in some types of cancer cells. These data and the absence of serious illness in individuals infected with NDV [1,2,3,10,13,17,18,19,20,21,22]) are consistent with the view that NDV may replicate more efficiently in human cancer cells than it does in most types of normal human cells (i.e., "DBTRG.05MG human glioblastoma," "U-87MG human astrocytoma," "rat F98 glioblastoma cells," and "mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma").