Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip cancer occurs most often on the lower lip.
The following is a protective factor for oral cancer:
Studies have shown that when people stop smoking cigarettes, their risk of oral cancer decreases by one-half (50%) within 5 years. Within 10 years of quitting, their risk of oral cancer is the same as for a person who never smoked cigarettes.
It is not clear whether avoiding certain risk factors will decrease the risk of oral cancer.
Certain risk factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of oral cancer. It may seem that by avoiding these risk factors, the chance of having oral cancer would decrease, but that has not been proven.
Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.
Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to lower the risk of certain types of cancer. Some cancer prevention trials are done with healthy people who have not had cancer but who have an increased risk for cancer. Other prevention trials are done with people who have had cancer and are trying to prevent another cancer of the same type or to lower their chance of developing a new type of cancer. Other trials are done with healthy volunteers who are not known to have any risk factors for cancer.
The purpose of some cancer prevention clinical trials is to find out whether actions people take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements.
New ways to prevent oral cancer are being studied in clinical trials.
Chemoprevention is the use of drugs, vitamins, or other agents to prevent or delay the growth of cancer. One study found no decrease in the risk of oral cancer in male smokers who took vitamin E and beta carotene supplements (pills).
Other studies of chemoprevention are being done in patients at high risk of oral cancer. This includes patients with lesions on the mucous membranes, which may become cancer, and patients with a history of oral cancer.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about clinical trials can be found in the Clinical Trials section of the NCI Web site. Check NCI's list of cancer clinical trials for lip and oral cavity cancer prevention trials and oropharyngeal cancer prevention trials that are now accepting patients.