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    Oral Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

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    Aside from the issues of generalizability to other populations and lack of an overall statistically significant result in cause-specific mortality, interpretation of the results is made difficult by serious lacks in methodologic detail about the randomization process, allocation concealment, adjustment for clustering effect, and information about treatment. The total number of clusters randomized was small, and there were different distributions of income and household possessions between the two study arms. Withdrawals and dropouts were not clearly described. In summary, the sole randomized trial does not provide solid evidence of a cause-specific mortality benefit associated with systematic oral cavity visual examination.

    Adjunctive techniques to visual examination

    Techniques such as toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy/cytology, or fluorescence imaging as the primary screening tool or as an adjunct for screening have not been shown to have superior sensitivity and specificity for visual examination alone or to yield better health outcomes.[9,20] In a RCT conducted in Keelung County, Taiwan, 7,975 individuals at high risk of oral cancer due to cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing were randomly assigned to receive a one-time oral cancer examination after gargling with toluidine blue or a blue placebo dye.[21] The positive test rates were 9.5% versus 8.3%, respectively, (P = .047). The detection of premalignant lesions was not statistically different (rate ratio = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.74-1.41). The number of overall oral cancers diagnosed within the short follow-up period of 5 years was too small for valid comparison (six in each group).

    The operating characteristics of the various techniques used as an adjunct to oral visual examination are not well established. A systematic literature review of toluidine blue, a variety of other visualization adjuncts, and cytopathology in the screening setting revealed a very broad range of reported sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values when using biopsy confirmation as the gold standard outcome.[22] In part, this was due to varying study populations, sample size and settings, as well as criteria for positive-clinical examinations and for scoring a biopsy as positive.

    Evidence of Harm Associated With Screening

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