Oral Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Oral Cancer
Oral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips, oral cavity, or oropharynx.
Oral cancer may develop in any of the following areas:
- Oral cavity:
- The front two thirds of the tongue.
- The gingiva (gums).
- The buccal mucosa (the lining of the inside of the cheeks).
- The floor (bottom) of the mouth under the tongue.
- The hard palate (the front of the roof of the mouth).
- The retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth).
Anatomy of the oral cavity. The oral cavity includes the lips, hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth), soft palate (the muscular back portion of the roof of the mouth), retromolar trigone (the area behind the wisdom teeth), front two-thirds of the tongue, gingiva (gums), buccal mucosa (the inner lining of the lips and cheeks), and floor of the mouth under the tongue.
- The middle part of the pharynx (throat) behind the mouth.
- The back one third of the tongue.
- The soft palate (the back of the roof of the mouth).
- The side and back walls of the throat.
- The tonsils.
Most oral cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma.
See the following PDQ summaries for more information about oral cancer:
- Oral Cancer Prevention
- Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment
The number of new cases of oral cancer and the number of deaths from oral cancer have been decreasing slowly.
The number of new cases and deaths from oral cancer has slowly decreased over the past 30 years. However, the number of new cases of oral cancer caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased. One kind of HPV, called HPV 16, is often passed from one person to another during sexual activity.
Although oral cancer occurs in all adults, it occurs most commonly in older adults. Also, oral cancer occurs more often in blacks than in whites and in men than in women.