In randomized trials, hypnosis has been shown to be a useful pain management strategy for cancer patients. Additional psychological techniques such as counseling, distraction, relaxation techniques, and other cognitive and behavioral training programs have been described (see list of psychological approaches to pain management techniques).
Physical management of orofacial pain includes the use of ice chips for oral cooling, cold compresses, and physical therapy. Acupuncture (refer to the PDQ summary on Acupuncture for more information), transcutaneous nerve stimulation, group therapy, self-hypnosis, relaxation, imagery, cognitive behavioral training, and massage therapy have been considered to alleviate pain in cancer patients. Relaxation and imagery may alleviate pain due to oral mucositis.[1,3];[Level of evidence: I]
Orofacial Pain Summary
Orofacial pain is common in cancer patients and may be caused by the cancer or its treatment. Orofacial pain is frequently associated with locoregional cancer, but it can also be a sign of systemic and distant cancer.
Pain management requires diagnosis of the various causes and mechanisms of pain in cancer patients. Practitioners must obtain regular pain ratings during the treatment of patients with cancer-related pain. Because pain is frequently multifactorial, addressing each of the dimensions of a patient's pain can improve pain control. Attention should be paid to the patient's overall medical status and oral status.
It is important to recognize and manage the side effects of analgesic therapy, especially those induced by opioids and adjuvant medications. Use of effective topical pain therapy with the initial mucosal injury may allow for reduced duration or reduced doses of systemic medications. Awareness of adjuvant approaches to management is essential; both medications and complementary management with evidence of effect should be considered.
- Epstein JB, Elad S, Eliav E, et al.: Orofacial pain in cancer: part II--clinical perspectives and management. J Dent Res 86 (6): 506-18, 2007.
- Kazemian A, Kamian S, Aghili M, et al.: Benzydamine for prophylaxis of radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancers: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 18 (2): 174-8, 2009.
- Berger A, Henderson M, Nadoolman W, et al.: Oral capsaicin provides temporary relief for oral mucositis pain secondary to chemotherapy/radiation therapy. J Pain Symptom Manage 10 (3): 243-8, 1995.
- Meuser T, Pietruck C, Radbruch L, et al.: Symptoms during cancer pain treatment following WHO-guidelines: a longitudinal follow-up study of symptom prevalence, severity and etiology. Pain 93 (3): 247-57, 2001.
- Eisenberg E, Marinangeli F, Birkhahn J, et al.: Time to modify the WHO analgesic ladder? Pain: Clinical Updates 13 (5): 1-4, 2005. Also available online. Last accessed April 17, 2014.
- Benedetti C, Brock C, Cleeland C, et al.: NCCN Practice Guidelines for Cancer Pain. Oncology (Williston Park) 14 (11A): 135-50, 2000.
- Ripamonti C, Dickerson ED: Strategies for the treatment of cancer pain in the new millennium. Drugs 61 (7): 955-77, 2001.
- Rankin KV, Jones DL, Redding SW, eds.: Oral Health in Cancer Therapy: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. 3rd ed. Austin, Tex: Dental Oncology Education Program, 2008. Also available online. Last accessed April 17, 2014.
- Mercadante S, Arcuri E, Tirelli W, et al.: Amitriptyline in neuropathic cancer pain in patients on morphine therapy: a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. Tumori 88 (3): 239-42, 2002 May-Jun.
- Mercadante S, Fulfaro F, Casuccio A: A randomised controlled study on the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with cancer pain on morphine therapy: effects on dose-escalation and a pharmacoeconomic analysis. Eur J Cancer 38 (10): 1358-63, 2002.
- Epstein JB, Hong C, Logan RM, et al.: A systematic review of orofacial pain in patients receiving cancer therapy. Support Care Cancer 18 (8): 1023-31, 2010.