There are no standard staging systems for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), macroglobulinemia, and plasmacytoma.
After multiple myeloma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out the amount of cancer in the body.
The process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body is called staging. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:
In a skeletal bone survey, x-rays of...
Radiation may be the preferred modality where the functional deficit will be great, such as the tongue base or tonsil, as shown in the RTOG-9003 trial, for example.[1,2,3]
Surgery may be the preferred modality where the functional deficit will be minimal, such as tonsil pillar.
When radiation is given, careful choice of radiation technique by a radiation oncologist experienced in managing head and neck cancers is essential. Interstitial radiation techniques may be used when indicated. The choice of treatment is dictated by the anticipated functional, cosmetic, and socioeconomic results of the treatment options as well as by the available expertise of the surgeon or radiation therapist. Treatment is individualized for each patient.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II oropharyngeal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Fu KK, Pajak TF, Trotti A, et al.: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyperfractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: first report of RTOG 9003. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48 (1): 7-16, 2000.
Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, et al.: Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Am J Clin Oncol 29 (1): 32-9, 2006.