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Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification

Retinoblastoma is composed mainly of undifferentiated anaplastic cells that arise from the retina. Histology shows similarity to neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma, including aggregation around blood vessels, necrosis, calcification, and Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes. Retinoblastomas are characterized by marked cell proliferation as evidenced by high mitosis counts and extremely high MIB-1 labeling indices.[1]

Cavitary retinoblastoma, a rare variant of retinoblastoma, has ophthalmoscopically visible lucent cavities within the tumor. The cavitary spaces appear hollow on ultrasonography and hypofluorescent on angiography. Histopathologically, the cavitary spaces have been shown to represent areas of photoreceptor differentiation.[2] These tumors have been associated with minimal visible tumor response to chemotherapy, which is thought to be a sign of tumor differentiation.[3]

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General Information About Hypopharyngeal Cancer

Cancer of the hypopharynx is uncommon; approximately 2,500 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year.[1] The peak incidence of this cancer occurs in males and females aged 50 to 60 years.[2] Excessive alcohol and tobacco use are the primary risk factors for hypopharyngeal cancer.[3,4] In the United States, hypopharyngeal cancers are more common in men than in women.[5] In Europe and Asia, high incidences of pharyngeal cancers, namely, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal, have been found...

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References:

  1. Schwimer CJ, Prayson RA: Clinicopathologic study of retinoblastoma including MIB-1, p53, and CD99 immunohistochemistry. Ann Diagn Pathol 5 (3): 148-54, 2001.
  2. Palamar M, Pirondini C, Shields CL, et al.: Cavitary retinoblastoma: ultrasonographic and fluorescein angiographic findings in 3 cases. Arch Ophthalmol 126 (11): 1598-600, 2008.
  3. Mashayekhi A, Shields CL, Eagle RC Jr, et al.: Cavitary changes in retinoblastoma: relationship to chemoresistance. Ophthalmology 112 (6): 1145-50, 2005.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: September 04, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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