Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started
My Medicine

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Unilateral and Bilateral Retinoblastoma


Cavitary Retinoblastoma

In patients with cavitary retinoblastoma, minimal visual response is seen after intravenous chemotherapy and/or intra-arterial chemotherapy. Despite the blunted clinical response, cavitary retinoblastoma has a favorable long-term outcome with stable tumor regression and globe salvage. Aggressive or prolonged chemotherapy or adjunctive therapies are generally not necessary. In a retrospective series of 26 cavitary retinoblastomas that were treated with intravenous chemoreduction and/or intra-arterial chemotherapy, the mean reduction in tumor base was 22%, and the mean reduction in tumor thickness was 29%. Despite minimal reduction, tumor recurrence was noted in only one eye, globe salvage was achieved in 22 eyes, and there were no cases of metastasis or death during 49 months (range, 6-189 months) of follow-up.[35]

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

Studies are planned for a variety of patient groups. The International Classification of Retinoblastoma is being utilized for these trials.

The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trial that is currently being conducted. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  • ARET12P1 (NCT02097134) (Intra-arterial Melphalan in Treating Younger Patients With Unilateral Retinoblastoma): This pilot clinical trial is studying whether unilateral Group D retinoblastoma, or retinoblastoma affecting one eye that has spread to the vitreous fluid, can be treated with intra-arterial injection. This may provide children with unilateral retinoblastoma a lower chance of needing surgery to remove the eye and reduce the severity of treatment side effects.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Chantada GL, Guitter MR, Fandiño AC, et al.: Treatment results in patients with retinoblastoma and invasion to the cut end of the optic nerve. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (2): 218-22, 2009.
  2. Eagle RC Jr: High-risk features and tumor differentiation in retinoblastoma: a retrospective histopathologic study. Arch Pathol Lab Med 133 (8): 1203-9, 2009.
  3. Aerts I, Sastre-Garau X, Savignoni A, et al.: Results of a multicenter prospective study on the postoperative treatment of unilateral retinoblastoma after primary enucleation. J Clin Oncol 31 (11): 1458-63, 2013.
  4. Kaliki S, Shields CL, Rojanaporn D, et al.: High-risk retinoblastoma based on international classification of retinoblastoma: analysis of 519 enucleated eyes. Ophthalmology 120 (5): 997-1003, 2013.
  5. Sastre X, Chantada GL, Doz F, et al.: Proceedings of the consensus meetings from the International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group on the pathology guidelines for the examination of enucleated eyes and evaluation of prognostic risk factors in retinoblastoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 133 (8): 1199-202, 2009.
  6. Chawla B, Sharma S, Sen S, et al.: Correlation between clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathologic findings in retinoblastoma: a prospective study. Ophthalmology 119 (4): 850-6, 2012.
  7. Chantada GL, Dunkel IJ, de Dávila MT, et al.: Retinoblastoma patients with high risk ocular pathological features: who needs adjuvant therapy? Br J Ophthalmol 88 (8): 1069-73, 2004.
  8. Cuenca A, Giron F, Castro D, et al.: Microscopic scleral invasion in retinoblastoma: clinicopathological features and outcome. Arch Ophthalmol 127 (8): 1006-10, 2009.
  9. Chantada GL, Fandiño AC, Guitter MR, et al.: Results of a prospective study for the treatment of unilateral retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 55 (1): 60-6, 2010.
  10. Shields CL, Honavar SG, Meadows AT, et al.: Chemoreduction plus focal therapy for retinoblastoma: factors predictive of need for treatment with external beam radiotherapy or enucleation. Am J Ophthalmol 133 (5): 657-64, 2002.
  11. Shields CL, Honavar SG, Meadows AT, et al.: Chemoreduction for unilateral retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol 120 (12): 1653-8, 2002.
  12. Zhao J, Dimaras H, Massey C, et al.: Pre-enucleation chemotherapy for eyes severely affected by retinoblastoma masks risk of tumor extension and increases death from metastasis. J Clin Oncol 29 (7): 845-51, 2011.
  13. Abramson DH, Marr BP, Brodie SE, et al.: Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for less advanced intraocular retinoblastoma: five year review. PLoS One 7 (4): e34120, 2012.
  14. Abramson DH, Dunkel IJ, Brodie SE, et al.: Superselective ophthalmic artery chemotherapy as primary treatment for retinoblastoma (chemosurgery). Ophthalmology 117 (8): 1623-9, 2010.
  15. Gobin YP, Dunkel IJ, Marr BP, et al.: Intra-arterial chemotherapy for the management of retinoblastoma: four-year experience. Arch Ophthalmol 129 (6): 732-7, 2011.
  16. Peterson EC, Elhammady MS, Quintero-Wolfe S, et al.: Selective ophthalmic artery infusion of chemotherapy for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma: initial experience with 17 tumors. J Neurosurg 114 (6): 1603-8, 2011.
  17. Beck MN, Balmer A, Dessing C, et al.: First-line chemotherapy with local treatment can prevent external-beam irradiation and enucleation in low-stage intraocular retinoblastoma. J Clin Oncol 18 (15): 2881-7, 2000.
  18. Murphree AL, Villablanca JG, Deegan WF 3rd, et al.: Chemotherapy plus local treatment in the management of intraocular retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol 114 (11): 1348-56, 1996.
  19. Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Cater J, et al.: Chemoreduction for retinoblastoma. Analysis of tumor control and risks for recurrence in 457 tumors. Am J Ophthalmol 138 (3): 329-37, 2004.
  20. Gallie BL, Budning A, DeBoer G, et al.: Chemotherapy with focal therapy can cure intraocular retinoblastoma without radiotherapy. Arch Ophthalmol 114 (11): 1321-8, 1996.
  21. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Wilson MW, Haik BG, et al.: Treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma with vincristine and carboplatin. J Clin Oncol 21 (10): 2019-25, 2003.
  22. Wilson MW, Haik BG, Billups CA, et al.: Incidence of new tumor formation in patients with hereditary retinoblastoma treated with primary systemic chemotherapy: is there a preventive effect? Ophthalmology 114 (11): 2077-82, 2007.
  23. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Chantada GL, Haik BG, et al.: Treatment of retinoblastoma: current status and future perspectives. Curr Treat Options Neurol 9 (4): 294-307, 2007.
  24. Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Cater J, et al.: Macular retinoblastoma managed with chemoreduction: analysis of tumor control with or without adjuvant thermotherapy in 68 tumors. Arch Ophthalmol 123 (6): 765-73, 2005.
  25. Qaddoumi I, Billups CA, Tagen M, et al.: Topotecan and vincristine combination is effective against advanced bilateral intraocular retinoblastoma and has manageable toxicity. Cancer 118 (22): 5663-70, 2012.
  26. Zage PE, Reitman AJ, Seshadri R, et al.: Outcomes of a two-drug chemotherapy regimen for intraocular retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (3): 567-72, 2008.
  27. Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Au AK, et al.: The International Classification of Retinoblastoma predicts chemoreduction success. Ophthalmology 113 (12): 2276-80, 2006.
  28. Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Aerts I, Lévy-Gabriel C, et al.: Conservative treatments of intraocular retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology 115 (8): 1405-10, 1410.e1-2, 2008.
  29. Cohen VM, Kingston J, Hungerford JL: The success of primary chemotherapy for group D heritable retinoblastoma. Br J Ophthalmol 93 (7): 887-90, 2009.
  30. Berry JL, Jubran R, Kim JW, et al.: Long-term outcomes of Group D eyes in bilateral retinoblastoma patients treated with chemoreduction and low-dose IMRT salvage. Pediatr Blood Cancer 60 (4): 688-93, 2013.
  31. Abramson DH, Dunkel IJ, Brodie SE, et al.: Bilateral superselective ophthalmic artery chemotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma: tandem therapy. Arch Ophthalmol 128 (3): 370-2, 2010.
  32. Palioura S, Gobin YP, Brodie SE, et al.: Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for the management of retinoblastoma in eyes with extensive (>50%) retinal detachment. Pediatr Blood Cancer 59 (5): 859-64, 2012.
  33. Schaiquevich P, Buitrago E, Taich P, et al.: Pharmacokinetic analysis of melphalan after superselective ophthalmic artery infusion in preclinical models and retinoblastoma patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53 (7): 4205-12, 2012.
  34. Francis JH, Gobin YP, Brodie SE, et al.: Experience of intra-arterial chemosurgery with single agent carboplatin for retinoblastoma. Br J Ophthalmol 96 (9): 1270-1, 2012.
  35. Rojanaporn D, Kaliki S, Bianciotto CG, et al.: Intravenous chemoreduction or intra-arterial chemotherapy for cavitary retinoblastoma: long-term results. Arch Ophthalmol 130 (5): 585-90, 2012.

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: May 28, 2015
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
New! I AM Not Cancer Facebook Group
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Real Cancer Perspectives
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas