Skip to content

    Cancer Health Center

    Font Size

    Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Staging and Grouping Systems for Retinoblastoma

    The staging of patients with retinoblastoma requires close coordination of radiologists, pediatric oncologists, and ophthalmologists. Several staging and grouping systems have been proposed for retinoblastoma.[1] Overall assessment of retinoblastoma extension is documented by staging systems; intraocular extension, which is relevant for ocular salvage, is documented by grouping systems. For treatment purposes, retinoblastoma is categorized into intraocular and extraocular disease.

    Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    Intraocular retinoblastoma is localized to the eye and may be confined to the retina or may extend to involve other structures such as the choroid, ciliary body, anterior chamber, and optic nerve head. Intraocular retinoblastoma, however, does not extend beyond the eye into the tissues around the eye or to other parts of the body.

    Extraocular Retinoblastoma

    Extraocular retinoblastoma has extended beyond the eye. It may be confined to the tissues around the eye (orbital retinoblastoma); it may have spread to the central nervous system (CNS); or, it may have spread systemically to the bone marrow or lymph nodes (metastatic retinoblastoma). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful in the evaluation of extrascleral and extraocular disease in children with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Optic nerve enhancement by MRI does not necessarily indicate involvement and cautious interpretation is needed.[2] The detection of the synthetase of ganglioside GD2 mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid at the time of diagnosis may be a marker for CNS disease.[3]

    Staging Systems

    AJCC staging system

    Several staging systems have been proposed over the years. The AJCC clinical and pathological classifications represent a consensus opinion around which a common language is used.

    Clinical classification system

    1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5
    1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    man holding lung xray
    What you need to know.
    stem cells
    How they work for blood cancers.
    woman wearing pink ribbon
    Separate fact from fiction.
    Colorectal cancer cells
    Symptoms, screening tests, and more.
    Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
    what is your cancer risk
    colorectal cancer treatment advances
    breast cancer overview slideshow
    prostate cancer overview
    lung cancer overview slideshow
    ovarian cancer overview slideshow
    Actor Michael Douglas