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Cancer Health Center

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Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview



Cryotherapy is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue, such as carcinoma in situ. This type of treatment is also called cryosurgery.


Thermotherapy is the use of heat to destroy cancer cells. Thermotherapy may be given using a laser beam aimed through the dilated pupil or onto the outside of the eyeball. Thermotherapy may be used alone for small tumors or combined with chemotherapy for larger tumors. This type of treatment is also called laser therapy.


Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the stage of the cancer and where the cancer is in the body.

There are different types of chemotherapy:

  • Systemic chemotherapy: When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body. Systemic chemotherapy is given to shrink the tumor (chemoreduction) and avoid surgery to remove the eye. After chemoreduction, other treatments may include radiation therapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, or regional chemotherapy. Systemic chemotherapy may also be given to kill any cancer cells that are left after the initial treatment. Treatment given after the initial treatment, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.
  • Regional chemotherapy: When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (intrathecal chemotherapy), an organ (such as the eye), or a body cavity, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas. Several types of regional chemotherapy:are used to treat retinoblastoma.
    • Ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy: Ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy carries anticancer drugs directly to the eye. A catheter is put into an artery that leads to the eye and the anticancer drug is given through the catheter. During this treatment, a small balloon may be inserted into the artery to block it and keep most of the anticancer drug trapped near the tumor. This type of chemotherapy may be given as the initial treatment when the tumor is only in one eye or when the tumor has not responded to other types of treatment. Ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy is given at specialized retinoblastoma treatment centers.
    • Subtenon chemotherapy: Subtenon chemotherapy is the use of drugs injected through the membrane covering the muscles and nerves at the back of the eyeball. It is usually combined with systemic chemotherapy and local treatment (such as radiation therapy, cryotherapy, or thermotherapy) in order to avoid surgery to remove the eye.
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