Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

continued...

Adult patients with rhabdomyosarcoma have a high incidence of pleomorphic histology (19%). Pleomorphic histology is extremely rare in children and young adults with rhabdomyosarcoma. Adults also have a higher incidence of tumors in unfavorable sites compared with children.[39]

Because treatment and prognosis depend, in part, on the histology and molecular genetics of the tumor, it is necessary that the tumor tissue be reviewed by pathologists and cytogeneticists/molecular geneticists with experience in the evaluation and diagnosis of tumors in children. Additionally, the diversity of primary sites, the distinctive surgical and radiation therapy treatments for each primary site, and the subsequent site-specific rehabilitation underscore the importance of treating children with rhabdomyosarcoma in medical centers with appropriate experience in all therapeutic modalities.

References:

  1. Smith MA, Seibel NL, Altekruse SF, et al.: Outcomes for children and adolescents with cancer: challenges for the twenty-first century. J Clin Oncol 28 (15): 2625-34, 2010.
  2. Guidelines for the pediatric cancer center and role of such centers in diagnosis and treatment. American Academy of Pediatrics Section Statement Section on Hematology/Oncology. Pediatrics 99 (1): 139-41, 1997.
  3. Gurney JG, Severson RK, Davis S, et al.: Incidence of cancer in children in the United States. Sex-, race-, and 1-year age-specific rates by histologic type. Cancer 75 (8): 2186-95, 1995.
  4. Ries LA, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, et al., eds.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1996. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 1999. Also available online. Last accessed April 01, 2013.
  5. Ognjanovic S, Linabery AM, Charbonneau B, et al.: Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005. Cancer 115 (18): 4218-26, 2009.
  6. Malempati S, Rodeberg DA, Donaldson SS, et al.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in infants younger than 1 year: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer 117 (15): 3493-501, 2011.
  7. Crist W, Gehan EA, Ragab AH, et al.: The Third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol 13 (3): 610-30, 1995.
  8. Maurer HM, Gehan EA, Beltangady M, et al.: The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-II. Cancer 71 (5): 1904-22, 1993.
  9. Casanova M, Meazza C, Favini F, et al.: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremities: a focus on tumors arising in the hand and foot. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26 (5): 321-31, 2009 Jul-Aug.
  10. Gurney JG, Young JL Jr, Roffers SD, et al.: Soft tissue sarcomas. In: Ries LA, Smith MA, Gurney JG, et al., eds.: Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, 1999. NIH Pub.No. 99-4649., pp 111-123. Also available online. Last accessed April 01, 2013.
  11. Ognjanovic S, Carozza SE, Chow EJ, et al.: Birth characteristics and the risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma based on histological subtype. Br J Cancer 102 (1): 227-31, 2010.
  12. Li FP, Fraumeni JF Jr: Rhabdomyosarcoma in children: epidemiologic study and identification of a familial cancer syndrome. J Natl Cancer Inst 43 (6): 1365-73, 1969.
  13. Diller L, Sexsmith E, Gottlieb A, et al.: Germline p53 mutations are frequently detected in young children with rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Invest 95 (4): 1606-11, 1995.
  14. Trahair T, Andrews L, Cohn RJ: Recognition of Li Fraumeni syndrome at diagnosis of a locally advanced extremity rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48 (3): 345-8, 2007.
  15. Dehner LP, Jarzembowski JA, Hill DA: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix: a report of 14 cases and a discussion of its unusual clinicopathological associations. Mod Pathol 25 (4): 602-14, 2012.
  16. Doros L, Yang J, Dehner L, et al.: DICER1 mutations in embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas from children with and without familial PPB-tumor predisposition syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer 59 (3): 558-60, 2012.
  17. Ferrari A, Bisogno G, Macaluso A, et al.: Soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1. Cancer 109 (7): 1406-12, 2007.
  18. Gripp KW, Lin AE, Stabley DL, et al.: HRAS mutation analysis in Costello syndrome: genotype and phenotype correlation. Am J Med Genet A 140 (1): 1-7, 2006.
  19. Aoki Y, Niihori T, Kawame H, et al.: Germline mutations in HRAS proto-oncogene cause Costello syndrome. Nat Genet 37 (10): 1038-40, 2005.
  20. Gripp KW: Tumor predisposition in Costello syndrome. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 137 (1): 72-7, 2005.
  21. Kratz CP, Rapisuwon S, Reed H, et al.: Cancer in Noonan, Costello, cardiofaciocutaneous and LEOPARD syndromes. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 157 (2): 83-9, 2011.
  22. Samuel DP, Tsokos M, DeBaun MR: Hemihypertrophy and a poorly differentiated embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the pelvis. Med Pediatr Oncol 32 (1): 38-43, 1999.
  23. DeBaun MR, Tucker MA: Risk of cancer during the first four years of life in children from The Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome Registry. J Pediatr 132 (3 Pt 1): 398-400, 1998.
  24. Moschovi M, Touliatou V, Vassiliki T, et al.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient with Noonan syndrome phenotype and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 29 (5): 341-4, 2007.
  25. Hasle H: Malignant diseases in Noonan syndrome and related disorders. Horm Res 72 (Suppl 2): 8-14, 2009.
  26. Smith LM, Anderson JR, Qualman SJ, et al.: Which patients with microscopic disease and rhabdomyosarcoma experience relapse after therapy? A report from the soft tissue sarcoma committee of the children's oncology group. J Clin Oncol 19 (20): 4058-64, 2001.
  27. Joshi D, Anderson JR, Paidas C, et al.: Age is an independent prognostic factor in rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42 (1): 64-73, 2004.
  28. Breneman JC, Lyden E, Pappo AS, et al.: Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. J Clin Oncol 21 (1): 78-84, 2003.
  29. La Quaglia MP, Heller G, Ghavimi F, et al.: The effect of age at diagnosis on outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer 73 (1): 109-17, 1994.
  30. Punyko JA, Mertens AC, Baker KS, et al.: Long-term survival probabilities for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. A population-based evaluation. Cancer 103 (7): 1475-83, 2005.
  31. Lawrence W Jr, Hays DM, Heyn R, et al.: Lymphatic metastases with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. Cancer 60 (4): 910-5, 1987.
  32. Mandell L, Ghavimi F, LaQuaglia M, et al.: Prognostic significance of regional lymph node involvement in childhood extremity rhabdomyosarcoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 18 (6): 466-71, 1990.
  33. Dantonello TM, Int-Veen C, Winkler P, et al.: Initial patient characteristics can predict pattern and risk of relapse in localized rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 26 (3): 406-13, 2008.
  34. Sorensen PH, Lynch JC, Qualman SJ, et al.: PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR gene fusions are prognostic indicators in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the children's oncology group. J Clin Oncol 20 (11): 2672-9, 2002.
  35. Burke M, Anderson JR, Kao SC, et al.: Assessment of response to induction therapy and its influence on 5-year failure-free survival in group III rhabdomyosarcoma: the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-IV experience--a report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 25 (31): 4909-13, 2007.
  36. Ferrari A, Miceli R, Meazza C, et al.: Comparison of the prognostic value of assessing tumor diameter versus tumor volume at diagnosis or in response to initial chemotherapy in rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 28 (8): 1322-8, 2010.
  37. Crist WM, Anderson JR, Meza JL, et al.: Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-IV: results for patients with nonmetastatic disease. J Clin Oncol 19 (12): 3091-102, 2001.
  38. Sung L, Anderson JR, Donaldson SS, et al.: Late events occurring five years or more after successful therapy for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group. Eur J Cancer 40 (12): 1878-85, 2004.
  39. Sultan I, Qaddoumi I, Yaser S, et al.: Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program, 1973 to 2005: an analysis of 2,600 patients. J Clin Oncol 27 (20): 3391-7, 2009.
  40. Streby KA, Ruymann FB, Whiteside S, et al.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescents and young adults: A 25-year review at Nationwide Children's Hospital. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 1 (4): 164-167, 2012.
  41. Van Gaal JC, Van Der Graaf WT, Rikhof B, et al.: The impact of age on outcome of embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma patients. A multicenter study. Anticancer Res 32 (10): 4485-97, 2012.
  42. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Bisogno G, et al.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in infants younger than one year old: a report from the Italian Cooperative Group. Cancer 97 (10): 2597-604, 2003.
  43. Gupta AA, Anderson JR, Pappo AS, et al.: Patterns of chemotherapy-induced toxicities in younger children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee. Cancer 118 (4): 1130-7, 2012.
  44. Bisogno G, Compostella A, Ferrari A, et al.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescents: a report from the AIEOP Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee. Cancer 118 (3): 821-7, 2012.
  45. Crist WM, Garnsey L, Beltangady MS, et al.: Prognosis in children with rhabdomyosarcoma: a report of the intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma studies I and II. Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Committee. J Clin Oncol 8 (3): 443-52, 1990.
  46. Spunt SL, Lobe TE, Pappo AS, et al.: Aggressive surgery is unwarranted for biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Surg 35 (2): 309-16, 2000.
  47. Ferrari A, Miceli R, Meazza C, et al.: Soft tissue sarcomas of childhood and adolescence: the prognostic role of tumor size in relation to patient body size. J Clin Oncol 27 (3): 371-6, 2009.
  48. Rodeberg DA, Stoner JA, Garcia-Henriquez N, et al.: Tumor volume and patient weight as predictors of outcome in children with intermediate risk rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the children's oncology group. Cancer : , 2010.
  49. Bisogno G, Ferrari A, Prete A, et al.: Sequential high-dose chemotherapy for children with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma. Eur J Cancer 45 (17): 3035-41, 2009.
  50. Dantonello TM, Winkler P, Boelling T, et al.: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with metastases confined to the lungs: report from the CWS Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (5): 725-32, 2011.
  51. Koscielniak E, Rodary C, Flamant F, et al.: Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma and histologically similar tumors in childhood: a retrospective European multi-center analysis. Med Pediatr Oncol 20 (3): 209-14, 1992.
  52. Donaldson SS, Meza J, Breneman JC, et al.: Results from the IRS-IV randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the IRSG. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51 (3): 718-28, 2001.
  53. Meza JL, Anderson J, Pappo AS, et al.: Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma treated on intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma studies III and IV: the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 24 (24): 3844-51, 2006.
  54. Rodeberg DA, Garcia-Henriquez N, Lyden ER, et al.: Prognostic significance and tumor biology of regional lymph node disease in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 29 (10): 1304-11, 2011.
  55. Qualman S, Lynch J, Bridge J, et al.: Prevalence and clinical impact of anaplasia in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma : a report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer 113 (11): 3242-7, 2008.
1|2|3
1|2|3

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Building a Support System
Blog
cancer fighting foods
SLIDESHOW
 
precancerous lesions slideshow
SLIDESHOW
quit smoking tips
SLIDESHOW
 
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
Blog
what is your cancer risk
HEALTH CHECK
 
colorectal cancer treatment advances
Video
breast cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
prostate cancer overview
SLIDESHOW
lung cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
Actor Michael Douglas
Article