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Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Screening and Assessment of Spiritual Concerns

Table 1. Assessment of Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Patients

ToolDeveloperPurpose/ Focus/ Subscale (No.)Specific to Cancer Patients?Level of Psychometric DevelopmentLength/ Other Characteristics/ Comments
Systems of Belief Inventory (SBI-15R)[7]Holland et al.Two factors: Beliefs/experience (10); religious social support (5)YesHighFour items assume belief in God
DRI/DUREL[5]Sherman et al.Religious involvement (5)YesModerate 
FACIT-Sp[10,15]Brady et al.; PetermanTwo factors: Meaning & peace (8), faith (4)YesHigh. Limited cross-validation data.Part of FACT-G quality-of-life battery[11]
Brief R-COPE[8]Pargament et al.Two factors: Positive coping; negative coping/distressNoVery High 
Fetzer Multidimensional Scale[21]FetzerMultiple subscalesNoHigh. Under development. 
FICA: Spiritual history[1]Puchalski et al.Brief spiritual historyNoLowMD interview assessment
SPIRIT[19]MaugansIn-depth interview with guided questionsNoLowMD interview assessment
Spiritual Transformation Scale (STS)[18]Cole et al.Two factors: Spiritual Growth and Spiritual DeclineYesModerateForty items. Unique to assessing change in spiritual experience post–cancer diagnosis.


  1. Puchalski C, Romer AL: Taking a spiritual history allows clinicians to understand patients more fully. J Palliat Med 3(1): 129-137, 2000.
  2. Kristeller JL, Zumbrun CS, Schilling RF: 'I would if I could': how oncologists and oncology nurses address spiritual distress in cancer patients. Psychooncology 8 (5): 451-8, 1999 Sep-Oct.
  3. Sloan RP, Bagiella E, VandeCreek L, et al.: Should physicians prescribe religious activities? N Engl J Med 342 (25): 1913-6, 2000.
  4. Puchalski CM, Larson DB: Developing curricula in spirituality and medicine. Acad Med 73 (9): 970-4, 1998.
  5. Sherman AC, Plante TG, Simonton S, et al.: A multidimensional measure of religious involvement for cancer patients: the Duke Religious Index. Support Care Cancer 8 (2): 102-9, 2000.
  6. Koenig H, Parkerson GR Jr, Meador KG: Religion index for psychiatric research. Am J Psychiatry 154 (6): 885-6, 1997.
  7. Holland JC, Kash KM, Passik S, et al.: A brief spiritual beliefs inventory for use in quality of life research in life-threatening illness. Psychooncology 7 (6): 460-9, 1998 Nov-Dec.
  8. Pargament KI, Smith BW, Koenig HG, et al.: Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. J Sci Study Relig 37 (4): 710-24, 1998.
  9. Hills J, Paice JA, Cameron JR, et al.: Spirituality and distress in palliative care consultation. J Palliat Med 8 (4): 782-8, 2005.
  10. Brady MJ, Peterman AH, Fitchett G, et al.: A case for including spirituality in quality of life measurement in oncology. Psychooncology 8 (5): 417-28, 1999 Sep-Oct.
  11. Cella DF, Tulsky DS, Gray G, et al.: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale: development and validation of the general measure. J Clin Oncol 11 (3): 570-9, 1993.
  12. Canada AL, Murphy PE, Fitchett G, et al.: A 3-factor model for the FACIT-Sp. Psychooncology 17 (9): 908-16, 2008.
  13. O'Mahony S, Goulet J, Kornblith A, et al.: Desire for hastened death, cancer pain and depression: report of a longitudinal observational study. J Pain Symptom Manage 29 (5): 446-57, 2005.
  14. Krupski TL, Saigal CS, Hanley J, et al.: Patterns of care for men with prostate cancer after failure of primary treatment. Cancer 107 (2): 258-65, 2006.
  15. Peterman AH, Fitchett G, Brady MJ, et al.: Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer: the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy--Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp). Ann Behav Med 24 (1): 49-58, 2002 Winter.
  16. Whitford HS, Olver IN, Peterson MJ: Spirituality as a core domain in the assessment of quality of life in oncology. Psychooncology 17 (11): 1121-8, 2008.
  17. Johnson ME, Piderman KM, Sloan JA, et al.: Measuring spiritual quality of life in patients with cancer. J Support Oncol 5 (9): 437-42, 2007.
  18. Cole BS, Hopkins CM, Tisak J, et al.: Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale. Psychooncology 17 (2): 112-21, 2008.
  19. Maugans TA: The SPIRITual history. Arch Fam Med 5 (1): 11-6, 1996.
  20. Borneman T, Ferrell B, Puchalski CM: Evaluation of the FICA Tool for Spiritual Assessment. J Pain Symptom Manage 40 (2): 163-73, 2010.
  21. Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality for Use in Health Research: A Report of the Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging Working Group. Kalamazoo, Mich: Fetzer Institute, 1999.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: September 04, 2014
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