Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

continued...

A secondary analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene trial conducted on male smokers in Finland evaluated the effect of supplementation on gastric cancer incidence.[27] No protective effects for these supplements against gastric cancer were observed. Six-year follow-up results of a study of 976 Colombian patients have been reported. Patients were randomly assigned to receive eight different treatments that included vitamin supplements and anti-Helicobacter therapy either alone or in combination versus placebo. Among the 79 patients who received anti-Helicobacter therapy, a borderline statistically significant regression of intestinal metaplasia when compared with a placebo (15% vs. 6%; RR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0–9.3) was noted. However, the combinations of antibiotics and vitamins did not confer additional benefits. More importantly, the progression rate of intestinal metaplasia was comparable irrespective of the treatments received. The progression rate was 23% in the placebo group and 17% in antibiotic recipients.[28]

A systematic review examined randomized trials of antioxidant dietary supplements for the prevention of gastrointestinal cancers, including gastric cancer.[29] Twenty trials were identified that assessed the preventive effects of antioxidant supplements or vitamin C on gastrointestinal cancer. With regard to gastric cancer, there were 12 comparisons of one or more micronutrients with placebo: beta-carotene alone (4 trials); vitamin C alone (1 trial); vitamin E alone (1 trial); vitamin A plus beta-carotene (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamin C (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamin E (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamins C and E (1 trial); selenium plus vitamins C and E (1 trial); and beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and selenium (1 trial). None of the comparisons showed a statistically significant effect on the incidence of gastric cancer. The overall summary estimate across all trials of antioxidants showed no statistically significant effect (RR of gastric cancer = 1.14; 95% CI, 0.97–1.33). Approximately 0.51% of participants in the combined antioxidant groups developed gastric cancer versus 0.38% in the placebo groups after treatment of 2.1 to 12 years and follow-up for as many as 14.1 years. In the combined analysis of all 20 trials of antioxidants for the prevention of gastrointestinal cancers, a fixed effects model showed an increase in overall mortality of antioxidants compared to placebo (RR for mortality = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.07) but not in a random effects model (RR for mortality = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97–1.07)

References:

  1. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al., eds.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 2011. Also available online. Last accessed March 13, 2013.
  2. Qiu D, Tanaka S: International comparisons of cumulative risk of stomach cancer, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol. VIII. Jpn J Clin Oncol 36 (2): 123-4, 2006.
  3. Stomach. In: Ries LA, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, et al., eds.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1973-1995. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 1998, Section 13.
  4. Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Krapcho M, et al.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2007. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 2010. Also available online. Last accessed January 10, 2013.
  5. American Cancer Society.: Cancer Facts and Figures 2013. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2013. Available online. Last accessed March 13, 2013.
  6. Parkin DM: Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncol 2 (9): 533-43, 2001.
  7. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al.: GLOBOCAN 2008: Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide in 2008. Lyon, France: IARC CancerBase No. 10. Available online. Last accessed February 15, 2013.
  8. Tan YK, Fielding JW: Early diagnosis of early gastric cancer. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18 (8): 821-9, 2006.
  9. Correa P: Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process--First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Cancer Res 52 (24): 6735-40, 1992.
  10. Ladeiras-Lopes R, Pereira AK, Nogueira A, et al.: Smoking and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control 19 (7): 689-701, 2008.
  11. González CA, Pera G, Agudo A, et al.: Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 107 (4): 629-34, 2003.
  12. La Torre G, Chiaradia G, Gianfagna F, et al.: Smoking status and gastric cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies published in the past ten years. Tumori 95 (1): 13-22, 2009 Jan-Feb.
  13. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans .: A review of human carcinogens--Part B: biological agents. Volume 100. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2011.
  14. Bouvard V, Baan R, Straif K, et al.: A review of human carcinogens--Part B: biological agents. Lancet Oncol 10 (4): 321-2, 2009.
  15. Cheung TK, Xia HH, Wong BC: Helicobacter pylori eradication for gastric cancer prevention. J Gastroenterol 42 (Suppl 17): 10-5, 2007.
  16. de Vries AC, Haringsma J, Kuipers EJ: The detection, surveillance and treatment of premalignant gastric lesions related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter 12 (1): 1-15, 2007.
  17. Sari YS, Can D, Tunali V, et al.: H pylori: Treatment for the patient only or the whole family? World J Gastroenterol 14 (8): 1244-7, 2008.
  18. Fuccio L, Zagari RM, Eusebi LH, et al.: Meta-analysis: can Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment reduce the risk for gastric cancer? Ann Intern Med 151 (2): 121-8, 2009.
  19. Leung WK, Lin SR, Ching JY, et al.: Factors predicting progression of gastric intestinal metaplasia: results of a randomised trial on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Gut 53 (9): 1244-9, 2004.
  20. Stomach. In: World Cancer Research Fund., American Institute for Cancer Research.: Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: The Institute, 1997, pp 148-175.
  21. Buiatti E, Palli D, Decarli A, et al.: A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy: II. Association with nutrients. Int J Cancer 45 (5): 896-901, 1990.
  22. Pisters PWT, Kelsen DP, Tepper JE: Cancer of the stomach. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds.: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. Vols. 1 & 2. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, pp 1043-1079.
  23. Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, et al.: Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (18): 1483-92, 1993.
  24. Li H, Li HQ, Wang Y, et al.: An intervention study to prevent gastric cancer by micro-selenium and large dose of allitridum. Chin Med J (Engl) 117 (8): 1155-60, 2004.
  25. Plummer M, Vivas J, Lopez G, et al.: Chemoprevention of precancerous gastric lesions with antioxidant vitamin supplementation: a randomized trial in a high-risk population. J Natl Cancer Inst 99 (2): 137-46, 2007.
  26. Taylor PR: Prevention of gastric cancer: a miss. J Natl Cancer Inst 99 (2): 101-3, 2007.
  27. Malila N, Taylor PR, Virtanen MJ, et al.: Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on gastric cancer incidence in male smokers (ATBC Study, Finland). Cancer Causes Control 13 (7): 617-23, 2002.
  28. Correa P, Fontham ET, Bravo JC, et al.: Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-helicobacter pylori therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 92 (23): 1881-8, 2000.
  29. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG, et al.: Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD004183, 2008.
1|2|3|4
1|2|3|4

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Building a Support System
Blog
cancer fighting foods
SLIDESHOW
 
precancerous lesions slideshow
SLIDESHOW
quit smoking tips
SLIDESHOW
 
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
Blog
what is your cancer risk
HEALTH CHECK
 
colorectal cancer treatment advances
Video
breast cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
prostate cancer overview
SLIDESHOW
lung cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
Actor Michael Douglas
Article