Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Testicular Cancer
There is no consensus about the optimal management of men with stage I nonseminomas, but each of the three strategies above produces a disease-specific survival rate of about 99%. Some clinicians have advocated a risk-adapted approach such that low-risk patients undergo surveillance, while others undergo either RPLND or chemotherapy. The goal of such an approach is to minimize the side effects of treatment, but risk-adapted therapy has never been demonstrated to result in better outcomes. Some experts prefer a surveillance strategy generally so as to minimize unnecessary treatment. Others prefer RPLND to obtain more accurate staging, to reduce the risk of needing chemotherapy (and hence chemotherapy's side effects and toxicity) and to, theoretically, reduce the risk of late relapse. At the same time, many experts reject RPLND as insufficiently effective at lowering relapse rates and prefer chemotherapy. Surveillance and chemotherapy have been tested at the regional and national level with excellent results, whereas the limited data concerning RPLND in the regional setting have shown higher than expected in-field relapse rates but no deaths.[40,41]
With regard to risk stratification, data suggest that relapse rates are higher in patients with histologic evidence of lymphatic or venous invasion or a predominance of embryonal carcinoma.[17,27,36,37,43] Tumors that consist of mature teratoma appear to have a lower relapse rate.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I malignant testicular germ cell tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
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- Aparicio J, García del Muro X, Maroto P, et al.: Multicenter study evaluating a dual policy of postorchiectomy surveillance and selective adjuvant single-agent carboplatin for patients with clinical stage I seminoma. Ann Oncol 14 (6): 867-72, 2003.
- Aparicio J, Germà JR, García del Muro X, et al.: Risk-adapted management for patients with clinical stage I seminoma: the Second Spanish Germ Cell Cancer Cooperative Group study. J Clin Oncol 23 (34): 8717-23, 2005.
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- Oliver RT, Mason MD, Mead GM, et al.: Radiotherapy versus single-dose carboplatin in adjuvant treatment of stage I seminoma: a randomised trial. Lancet 366 (9482): 293-300, 2005 Jul 23-29.
- Oliver RT, Mead GM, Rustin GJ, et al.: Randomized trial of carboplatin versus radiotherapy for stage I seminoma: mature results on relapse and contralateral testis cancer rates in MRC TE19/EORTC 30982 study (ISRCTN27163214). J Clin Oncol 29 (8): 957-62, 2011.
- Dieckmann KP, Brüggeboes B, Pichlmeier U, et al.: Adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I seminoma: is a single course of carboplatin sufficient? Urology 55 (1): 102-6, 2000.
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- Oliver RT, Boublikova L, Ong J, et al.: Fifteen year follow up of the Anglian Germ Cell Cancer Group adjuvant studies of carboplatin as an alternative to radiation or surveillance for stage I seminoma. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 20: A-780, 196a, 2001.
- Reiter WJ, Brodowicz T, Alavi S, et al.: Twelve-year experience with two courses of adjuvant single-agent carboplatin therapy for clinical stage I seminoma. J Clin Oncol 19 (1): 101-4, 2001.
- Steiner H, Höltl L, Wirtenberger W, et al.: Long-term experience with carboplatin monotherapy for clinical stage I seminoma: a retrospective single-center study. Urology 60 (2): 324-8, 2002.
- Bamberg M, Schmidberger H, Meisner C, et al.: Radiotherapy for stages I and IIA/B testicular seminoma. Int J Cancer 83 (6): 823-7, 1999.
- Classen J, Schmidberger H, Meisner C, et al.: Para-aortic irradiation for stage I testicular seminoma: results of a prospective study in 675 patients. A trial of the German testicular cancer study group (GTCSG). Br J Cancer 90 (12): 2305-11, 2004.
- Fosså SD, Horwich A, Russell JM, et al.: Optimal planning target volume for stage I testicular seminoma: A Medical Research Council randomized trial. Medical Research Council Testicular Tumor Working Group. J Clin Oncol 17 (4): 1146, 1999.
- Jones WG, Fossa SD, Mead GM, et al.: Randomized trial of 30 versus 20 Gy in the adjuvant treatment of stage I Testicular Seminoma: a report on Medical Research Council Trial TE18, European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial 30942 (ISRCTN18525328). J Clin Oncol 23 (6): 1200-8, 2005.
- Logue JP, Harris MA, Livsey JE, et al.: Short course para-aortic radiation for stage I seminoma of the testis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57 (5): 1304-9, 2003.
- Oliver RT, Mason M, Von der Masse H, et al.: A randomised comparison of single agent carboplatin with radiotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of stage I seminoma of the testis, following orchidectomy: MRC TE19/EORTC 30982. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 22 (Suppl 14): A-4517, 386, 2004.
- Santoni R, Barbera F, Bertoni F, et al.: Stage I seminoma of the testis: a bi-institutional retrospective analysis of patients treated with radiation therapy only. BJU Int 92 (1): 47-52; discussion 52, 2003.
- van As NJ, Gilbert DC, Money-Kyrle J, et al.: Evidence-based pragmatic guidelines for the follow-up of testicular cancer: optimising the detection of relapse. Br J Cancer 98 (12): 1894-902, 2008.
- Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R, et al.: European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 53 (3): 478-96, 2008.
- National Comprehensive Cancer Network.: NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Testicular Cancer. Version 2.2009. Fort Washington, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2009. Available online. Last accessed January 18, 2012.
- Rustin GJ, Mead GM, Stenning SP, et al.: Randomized trial of two or five computed tomography scans in the surveillance of patients with stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: Medical Research Council Trial TE08, ISRCTN56475197--the National Cancer Research Institute Testis Cancer Clinical Studies Group. J Clin Oncol 25 (11): 1310-5, 2007.
- Colls BM, Harvey VJ, Skelton L, et al.: Late results of surveillance of clinical stage I nonseminoma germ cell testicular tumours: 17 years' experience in a national study in New Zealand. BJU Int 83 (1): 76-82, 1999.
- Shahidi M, Norman AR, Dearnaley DP, et al.: Late recurrence in 1263 men with testicular germ cell tumors. Multivariate analysis of risk factors and implications for management. Cancer 95 (3): 520-30, 2002.
- Huddart SN, Mann JR, Gornall P, et al.: The UK Children's Cancer Study Group: testicular malignant germ cell tumours 1979-1988. J Pediatr Surg 25 (4): 406-10, 1990.
- Foster RS, McNulty A, Rubin LR, et al.: The fertility of patients with clinical stage I testis cancer managed by nerve sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Urol 152 (4): 1139-42; discussion 1142-3, 1994.
- Donohue JP: Evolution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) in the management of non-seminomatous testicular cancer (NSGCT). Urol Oncol 21 (2): 129-32, 2003 Mar-Apr.
- Heidenreich A, Albers P, Hartmann M, et al.: Complications of primary nerve sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: experience of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. J Urol 169 (5): 1710-4, 2003.
- Williams SD, Stablein DM, Einhorn LH, et al.: Immediate adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation with treatment at relapse in pathological stage II testicular cancer. N Engl J Med 317 (23): 1433-8, 1987.
- Behnia M, Foster R, Einhorn LH, et al.: Adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin in pathological stage II non-seminomatous testicular cancer. the Indiana University experience. Eur J Cancer 36 (4): 472-5, 2000.
- Kondagunta GV, Sheinfeld J, Mazumdar M, et al.: Relapse-free and overall survival in patients with pathologic stage II nonseminomatous germ cell cancer treated with etoposide and cisplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 22 (3): 464-7, 2004.
- Hermans BP, Sweeney CJ, Foster RS, et al.: Risk of systemic metastases in clinical stage I nonseminoma germ cell testis tumor managed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Urol 163 (6): 1721-4, 2000.
- Sweeney CJ, Hermans BP, Heilman DK, et al.: Results and outcome of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I embryonal carcinoma--predominant testis cancer. J Clin Oncol 18 (2): 358-62, 2000.
- Sesterhenn IA, Weiss RB, Mostofi FK, et al.: Prognosis and other clinical correlates of pathologic review in stage I and II testicular carcinoma: a report from the Testicular Cancer Intergroup Study. J Clin Oncol 10 (1): 69-78, 1992.
- Stephenson AJ, Bosl GJ, Bajorin DF, et al.: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with low stage testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance and/or lymphovascular invasion. J Urol 174 (2): 557-60; discussion 560, 2005.
- Albers P, Siener R, Krege S, et al.: Randomized phase III trial comparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with one course of bleomycin and etoposide plus cisplatin chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I Nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors: AUO trial AH 01/94 by the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 26 (18): 2966-72, 2008.
- Tandstad T, Dahl O, Cohn-Cedermark G, et al.: Risk-adapted treatment in clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer: the SWENOTECA management program. J Clin Oncol 27 (13): 2122-8, 2009.
- Choueiri TK, Stephenson AJ, Gilligan T, et al.: Management of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer. Urol Clin North Am 34 (2): 137-48; abstract viii, 2007.
- Heidenreich A, Sesterhenn IA, Mostofi FK, et al.: Prognostic risk factors that identify patients with clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors at low risk and high risk for metastasis. Cancer 83 (5): 1002-11, 1998.
- Alexandre J, Fizazi K, Mahé C, et al.: Stage I non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours of the testis: identification of a subgroup of patients with a very low risk of relapse. Eur J Cancer 37 (5): 576-82, 2001.