Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Testicular Cancer
Standard treatment options for initial treatment for nonseminoma patients with intermediate- and poor-risk disease:
Management of residual masses following chemotherapy for patients with seminoma
- In seminoma patients, the residual masses after chemotherapy are usually fibrotic but may contain residual seminoma that requires additional therapy.[43,44] There are three standard management strategies:
- Observation with no additional treatment or biopsies unless the residual mass(es) increase(s) in size.
- Observation of masses smaller than 3 cm and surgical resection of masses larger than 3 cm.
- FDG-PET scan 2 months after chemotherapy is completed with observation of PET-negative masses and resection of PET-positive masses.
Management of residual masses following chemotherapy for patients with nonseminoma
- In patients who have residual masses following chemotherapy, all such masses should be resected if technically feasible. If some, but not all, residual masses can be resected, surgery is not usually performed. The rationale for surgery in this setting is that about half of the masses will contain viable tumor, either teratoma or cancer.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage III malignant testicular germ cell tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
- International Germ Cell Consensus Classification: a prognostic factor-based staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers. International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. J Clin Oncol 15 (2): 594-603, 1997.
- van Dijk MR, Steyerberg EW, Habbema JD: Survival of non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients according to the IGCC classification: An update based on meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 42 (7): 820-6, 2006.
- Williams SD, Birch R, Einhorn LH, et al.: Treatment of disseminated germ-cell tumors with cisplatin, bleomycin, and either vinblastine or etoposide. N Engl J Med 316 (23): 1435-40, 1987.
- Nichols CR, Catalano PJ, Crawford ED, et al.: Randomized comparison of cisplatin and etoposide and either bleomycin or ifosfamide in treatment of advanced disseminated germ cell tumors: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Southwest Oncology Group, and Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study. J Clin Oncol 16 (4): 1287-93, 1998.
- Hinton S, Catalano PJ, Einhorn LH, et al.: Cisplatin, etoposide and either bleomycin or ifosfamide in the treatment of disseminated germ cell tumors: final analysis of an intergroup trial. Cancer 97 (8): 1869-75, 2003.
- de Wit R, Louwerens M, de Mulder PH, et al.: Management of intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer: results of a phase I/II study of Taxol-BEP. Int J Cancer 83 (6): 831-3, 1999.
- Einhorn LH, Williams SD, Loehrer PJ, et al.: Evaluation of optimal duration of chemotherapy in favorable-prognosis disseminated germ cell tumors: a Southeastern Cancer Study Group protocol. J Clin Oncol 7 (3): 387-91, 1989.
- Saxman SB, Finch D, Gonin R, et al.: Long-term follow-up of a phase III study of three versus four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in favorable-prognosis germ-cell tumors: the Indiana University experience. J Clin Oncol 16 (2): 702-6, 1998.
- de Wit R, Roberts JT, Wilkinson PM, et al.: Equivalence of three or four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy and of a 3- or 5-day schedule in good-prognosis germ cell cancer: a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group and the Medical Research Council. J Clin Oncol 19 (6): 1629-40, 2001.
- Motzer RJ, Nichols CJ, Margolin KA, et al.: Phase III randomized trial of conventional-dose chemotherapy with or without high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue as first-line treatment for patients with poor-prognosis metastatic germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 25 (3): 247-56, 2007.
- Loehrer PJ Sr, Johnson D, Elson P, et al.: Importance of bleomycin in favorable-prognosis disseminated germ cell tumors: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol 13 (2): 470-6, 1995.
- Culine S, Kerbrat P, Kramar A, et al.: Refining the optimal chemotherapy regimen for good-risk metastatic nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors: a randomized trial of the Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centers (GETUG T93BP). Ann Oncol 18 (5): 917-24, 2007.
- Bosl GJ, Geller NL, Bajorin D, et al.: A randomized trial of etoposide + cisplatin versus vinblastine + bleomycin + cisplatin + cyclophosphamide + dactinomycin in patients with good-prognosis germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 6 (8): 1231-8, 1988.
- Levi JA, Raghavan D, Harvey V, et al.: The importance of bleomycin in combination chemotherapy for good-prognosis germ cell carcinoma. Australasian Germ Cell Trial Group. J Clin Oncol 11 (7): 1300-5, 1993.
- de Wit R, Stoter G, Kaye SB, et al.: Importance of bleomycin in combination chemotherapy for good-prognosis testicular nonseminoma: a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 15 (5): 1837-43, 1997.
- Leibovitch I, Little JS Jr, Foster RS, et al.: Delayed orchiectomy after chemotherapy for metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. J Urol 155 (3): 952-4, 1996.
- Collette L, Sylvester RJ, Stenning SP, et al.: Impact of the treating institution on survival of patients with "poor-prognosis" metastatic nonseminoma. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genito-Urinary Tract Cancer Collaborative Group and the Medical Research Council Testicular Cancer Working Party. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (10): 839-46, 1999.
- Suzumura S, Ioka A, Nakayama T, et al.: Hospital procedure volume and prognosis with respect to testicular cancer patients: a population-based study in Osaka, Japan. Cancer Sci 99 (11): 2260-3, 2008.
- Aass N, Klepp O, Cavallin-Stahl E, et al.: Prognostic factors in unselected patients with nonseminomatous metastatic testicular cancer: a multicenter experience. J Clin Oncol 9 (5): 818-26, 1991.
- Feuer EJ, Frey CM, Brawley OW, et al.: After a treatment breakthrough: a comparison of trial and population-based data for advanced testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 12 (2): 368-77, 1994.
- Harding MJ, Paul J, Gillis CR, et al.: Management of malignant teratoma: does referral to a specialist unit matter? Lancet 341 (8851): 999-1002, 1993.
- Zon RT, Nichols C, Einhorn LH: Management strategies and outcomes of germ cell tumor patients with very high human chorionic gonadotropin levels. J Clin Oncol 16 (4): 1294-7, 1998.
- Duchesne GM, Stenning SP, Aass N, et al.: Radiotherapy after chemotherapy for metastatic seminoma--a diminishing role. MRC Testicular Tumour Working Party. Eur J Cancer 33 (6): 829-35, 1997.
- Heidenreich A, Thüer D, Polyakov S: Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in advanced germ cell tumours of the testis. Eur Urol 53 (2): 260-72, 2008.
- De Santis M, Becherer A, Bokemeyer C, et al.: 2-18fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is a reliable predictor for viable tumor in postchemotherapy seminoma: an update of the prospective multicentric SEMPET trial. J Clin Oncol 22 (6): 1034-9, 2004.
- Hinz S, Schrader M, Kempkensteffen C, et al.: The role of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of residual masses after chemotherapy for advanced stage seminoma. J Urol 179 (3): 936-40; discussion 940, 2008.
- Lewis DA, Tann M, Kesler K, et al.: Positron emission tomography scans in postchemotherapy seminoma patients with residual masses: a retrospective review from Indiana University Hospital. J Clin Oncol 24 (34): e54-5, 2006.
- Schultz SM, Einhorn LH, Conces DJ Jr, et al.: Management of postchemotherapy residual mass in patients with advanced seminoma: Indiana University experience. J Clin Oncol 7 (10): 1497-503, 1989.
- Mosharafa AA, Foster RS, Leibovich BC, et al.: Is post-chemotherapy resection of seminomatous elements associated with higher acute morbidity? J Urol 169 (6): 2126-8, 2003.
- Steyerberg EW, Keizer HJ, Fosså SD, et al.: Prediction of residual retroperitoneal mass histology after chemotherapy for metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor: multivariate analysis of individual patient data from six study groups. J Clin Oncol 13 (5): 1177-87, 1995.
- Vergouwe Y, Steyerberg EW, Foster RS, et al.: Predicting retroperitoneal histology in postchemotherapy testicular germ cell cancer: a model update and multicentre validation with more than 1000 patients. Eur Urol 51 (2): 424-32, 2007.
- Vergouwe Y, Steyerberg EW, de Wit R, et al.: External validity of a prediction rule for residual mass histology in testicular cancer: an evaluation for good prognosis patients. Br J Cancer 88 (6): 843-7, 2003.
- Brenner PC, Herr HW, Morse MJ, et al.: Simultaneous retroperitoneal, thoracic, and cervical resection of postchemotherapy residual masses in patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. J Clin Oncol 14 (6): 1765-9, 1996.
- Steyerberg EW, Donohue JP, Gerl A, et al.: Residual masses after chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer: the clinical implications of the association between retroperitoneal and pulmonary histology. Re-analysis of Histology in Testicular Cancer (ReHiT) Study Group. J Urol 158 (2): 474-8, 1997.
- Katz MH, McKiernan JM: Management of non-retroperitoneal residual germ cell tumor masses. Urol Clin North Am 34 (2): 235-43; abstract x, 2007.
- Fox EP, Weathers TD, Williams SD, et al.: Outcome analysis for patients with persistent nonteratomatous germ cell tumor in postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections. J Clin Oncol 11 (7): 1294-9, 1993.
- Huddart SN, Mann JR, Gornall P, et al.: The UK Children's Cancer Study Group: testicular malignant germ cell tumours 1979-1988. J Pediatr Surg 25 (4): 406-10, 1990.
- Gholam D, Fizazi K, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, et al.: Advanced seminoma--treatment results and prognostic factors for survival after first-line, cisplatin-based chemotherapy and for patients with recurrent disease: a single-institution experience in 145 patients. Cancer 98 (4): 745-52, 2003.
- Bajorin DF, Geller NL, Weisen SF, et al.: Two-drug therapy in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors. Cancer 67 (1): 28-32, 1991.
- Mencel PJ, Motzer RJ, Mazumdar M, et al.: Advanced seminoma: treatment results, survival, and prognostic factors in 142 patients. J Clin Oncol 12 (1): 120-6, 1994.
- de Wit R, Stoter G, Sleijfer DT, et al.: Four cycles of BEP vs four cycles of VIP in patients with intermediate-prognosis metastatic testicular non-seminoma: a randomized study of the EORTC Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Br J Cancer 78 (6): 828-32, 1998.
- Culine S, Abs L, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, et al.: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced seminoma: the Institut Gustave Roussy experience. Eur J Cancer 34 (3): 353-8, 1998.
- Quek ML, Simma-Chiang V, Stein JP, et al.: Postchemotherapy residual masses in advanced seminoma: current management and outcomes. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 5 (5): 869-74, 2005.
- Herr HW, Sheinfeld J, Puc HS, et al.: Surgery for a post-chemotherapy residual mass in seminoma. J Urol 157 (3): 860-2, 1997.