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Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I and II Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancer


Of the 1,298 patients, 911 patients received RAI after surgery, and 387 patients did not receive RAI after surgery. Follow-up period was 10.3 years; in multivariate analyses, there were no differences in OS (P = .243) or DFS (P = .2659), according to RAI use.[14]

Long-term complications of RAI using I131 include second malignancies, sialadenitis, and lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction. Options for reducing the amount of radiation exposure by reducing the amount of RAI in each dose and also to give RAI in combination with rhTSH injections have been explored for low-risk thyroid cancer patients.

Two phase III, randomized, noninferiority studies of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer using a comparison of two thyrotropin-stimulation methods (thyroid hormone withdrawal or use of rhTSH) and two doses of radioiodine I131 1.1GBq [30mCi] and 3.7GBq [100mCi] using a 2 × 2 factorial design showed equivalent thyroid ablation rates between high and low dose I131 at 6 to 10 months after administration of I131.[15,16][Levels of evidence: 3iA and3iDii] However, differences in the inclusion criteria in one study [15] consisted of a low-risk, homogeneous cohort in which all of the patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and had pathological TNM stage pT1 ( ≤1 cm) and N1 or Nx, pT1 (>1–2cm) and any N stage, or pT2N0 without thyroid capsule extension/distant metastases. Complete thyroid ablation rate in this study was 92%. Patients undergoing thyroid hormone withdrawal had greater symptoms of hypothyroidism associated with deterioration in quality of life compared with the rhTSH group.

In the other study,[16] patients with more advanced T stage (T1–T3, N0–1) and with less than a total thyroidectomy were included with a lower overall ablation rate of 85%. Neither study assessed the effect of low-dose RAI on long-term recurrences or survival. The studies also did not address whether RAI could be safely omitted in specific low-risk groups.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I papillary thyroid cancer, stage I follicular thyroid cancer, stage II papillary thyroid cancer and stage II follicular thyroid cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Carling T, Udelsman R: Thyroid tumors. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 1457-72.
  2. Grant CS, Hay ID, Gough IR, et al.: Local recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma: is extent of surgical resection important? Surgery 104 (6): 954-62, 1988.
  3. Cady B, Rossi R: An expanded view of risk-group definition in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgery 104 (6): 947-53, 1988.
  4. Mazzaferri EL, Jhiang SM: Long-term impact of initial surgical and medical therapy on papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Am J Med 97 (5): 418-28, 1994.
  5. Staunton MD: Thyroid cancer: a multivariate analysis on influence of treatment on long-term survival. Eur J Surg Oncol 20 (6): 613-21, 1994.
  6. Tollefsen HR, Shah JP, Huvos AG: Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Surg 126 (4): 523-8, 1973.
  7. Edis AJ: Surgical treatment for thyroid cancer. Surg Clin North Am 57 (3): 533-42, 1977.
  8. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, et al.: Extent of surgery affects survival for papillary thyroid cancer. Ann Surg 246 (3): 375-81; discussion 381-4, 2007.
  9. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Linn JG, et al.: Utilization of total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer in the United States. Surgery 142 (6): 906-13; discussion 913.e1-2, 2007.
  10. Beierwaltes WH, Rabbani R, Dmuchowski C, et al.: An analysis of "ablation of thyroid remnants" with I-131 in 511 patients from 1947-1984: experience at University of Michigan. J Nucl Med 25 (12): 1287-93, 1984.
  11. Hay ID, Grant CS, van Heerden JA, et al.: Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a study of 535 cases observed in a 50-year period. Surgery 112 (6): 1139-46; discussion 1146-7, 1992.
  12. Hay ID, Grant CS, Bergstralh EJ, et al.: Unilateral total lobectomy: is it sufficient surgical treatment for patients with AMES low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma? Surgery 124 (6): 958-64; discussion 964-6, 1998.
  13. Hänscheid H, Lassmann M, Luster M, et al.: Iodine biokinetics and dosimetry in radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer: procedures and results of a prospective international controlled study of ablation after rhTSH or hormone withdrawal. J Nucl Med 47 (4): 648-54, 2006.
  14. Schvartz C, Bonnetain F, Dabakuyo S, et al.: Impact on overall survival of radioactive iodine in low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97 (5): 1526-35, 2012.
  15. Schlumberger M, Catargi B, Borget I, et al.: Strategies of radioiodine ablation in patients with low-risk thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med 366 (18): 1663-73, 2012.
  16. Mallick U, Harmer C, Yap B, et al.: Ablation with low-dose radioiodine and thyrotropin alfa in thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med 366 (18): 1674-85, 2012.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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