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Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I and II Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancer

Surgery is the therapy of choice for all primary lesions. Surgical options include total thyroidectomy or lobectomy. The choice of procedure is influenced mainly by the age of the patient and the size of the nodule. Survival results may be similar; the difference between them lies in the rates of surgical complications and local recurrences.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]

Standard treatment options:

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  1. Total thyroidectomy.
  2. Lobectomy.

Total Thyroidectomy

This procedure is advocated because of the high incidence of multicentric involvement of both lobes of the gland and the possibility of dedifferentiation of any residual tumor to the anaplastic cell type.

From the National Cancer Center Data Base (NCDB) registry of 52,173 patients, 43,227 (82.9%) underwent total thyroidectomy, and 8,946 (17.1%) underwent lobectomy. For a papillary thyroid cancer measuring less than 1 cm, the extent of surgery did not impact recurrence or survival (P = .24 and P = .83, respectively).[8] For tumors measuring 1 cm or larger, lobectomy resulted in higher risk of recurrence and death (P = .04 and P = .009, respectively). To minimize the influence of larger tumors, 1-cm to 2-cm lesions were examined separately; lobectomy again resulted in a higher risk of recurrence and death (P = .04 and P = .04, respectively). In this study, total thyroidectomy resulted in lower recurrence rates and improved survival for patients with papillary thyroid cancer measuring 1 cm or larger compared with lobectomy.[8][Level of evidence: 3iiA]

Furthermore, in a pattern of care study, using the NCDB registry from 1985 to 2003, 57,243 papillary thyroid cancer patients with tumors measuring 1 cm or larger underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy. Trends in the extent of surgery were examined for patients with papillary thyroid cancer over 2 decades. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that predict the use of total thyroidectomy compared with lobectomy. Use of total thyroidectomy increased from 70.8% in 1985 to 90.4% in 2003 (P < .0001). Patients treated at high-volume medical facilities or academic centers were more likely to undergo total thyroidectomy than were patients examined at low-volume medical facilities or community hospitals (P < .0001).[9][Level of evidence: 3i]

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