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    Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Thyroid Cancer

    Table 4. Anatomic Stage/Prognostic Groupsa,b continued...

    Stage III papillary thyroid cancer

    Stage III is papillary carcinoma in patients older than 45 years that is larger than 4 cm and is limited to the thyroid or with minimal extrathyroid extension, or positive lymph nodes limited to the pretracheal, paratracheal, or prelaryngeal/Delphian nodes. Papillary carcinoma that has invaded adjacent cervical tissue has a worse prognosis than tumors confined to the thyroid.

    Stage IV papillary thyroid cancer

    Stage IV is papillary carcinoma in patients older than 45 years with extension beyond the thyroid capsule to the soft tissues of the neck, cervical lymph node metastases, or distant metastases. The lungs and bone are the most frequent distant sites of spread, though such distant spread is rare in this type of thyroid cancer. Papillary carcinoma more frequently metastasizes to regional lymph nodes than to distant sites. The prognosis for patients with distant metastases is poor.

    Stage I follicular thyroid cancer

    Stage I follicular carcinoma is localized to the thyroid gland. Follicular thyroid carcinoma must be distinguished from follicular adenomas, which are characterized by their lack of invasion through the capsule into the surrounding thyroid tissue. While follicular cancer has a good prognosis, it is less favorable than that of papillary carcinoma. The 10-year survival is better for patients with follicular carcinoma without vascular invasion than it is for patients with vascular invasion.

    Stage II follicular thyroid cancer

    Stage II follicular carcinoma is defined as either tumor that has spread distantly in patients younger than 45 years, or tumor that is larger than 2 cm but 4 cm or smaller and is limited to the thyroid gland in patients older than 45 years. The presence of lymph node metastases does not worsen the prognosis among patients younger than 45 years. Follicular thyroid carcinoma must be distinguished from follicular adenomas, which are characterized by their lack of invasion through the capsule into the surrounding thyroid tissue. While follicular cancer has a good prognosis, it is less favorable than that of papillary carcinoma; the 10-year survival is better for patients with follicular carcinoma without vascular invasion than for patients with vascular invasion.

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