Other conditions that are not ovarian cancer may cause these same signs and symptoms.
Tests to diagnose and stage ovarian cancer may include the following:
- Physical exam and history.
- CT scan.
See the General Information section for a description of these tests and procedures.
Ovarian epithelial cancer is usually found at an early stage in children and is easier to treat than in adult patients.
Treatment of ovarian epithelial cancer may include the following:
- Radiation therapy.
- Combination chemotherapy.
Treatment of ovarian stromal tumors may include the following:
- Surgery to remove one ovary and one fallopian tube, for early cancer.
- Surgery followed by chemotherapy for cancer that is advanced.
- Chemotherapy for cancer that has recurred (come back).
See the following PDQ summaries for more information:
- Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment
- Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment
- Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment
Cervical and Vaginal Cancer
Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). Vaginal cancer forms in the vagina. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix to the outside of the body. At birth, a baby passes out of the body through the vagina (also called the birth canal).
Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium.
The most common sign of cervical and vaginal cancer is bleeding from the vagina. Other conditions may also cause vaginal bleeding.
Treatment for childhood cervical and vaginal cancer may include surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible, followed by radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may also be used but it is not yet known if this is an effective treatment.