Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Abdominal Cancers

Table 4. Common Genetic Syndromes Associated With Hamartomatous Polyps continued...

Treatment of GIST

Once the diagnosis of pediatric GIST is established, it is recommended that patients be seen at centers with expertise in the treatment of GIST and that all samples be subjected to mutational analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, 17), PDGFR (exons 12, 14, 18), and BRAF (V600E).[133,134]

Treatment of GIST varies based on whether a mutation is detected:

  • GIST with a KIT or PDGFR mutation: Pediatric patients who harbor KIT or PDGFR mutations should be managed according to adult guidelines.
  • Wild-type GIST (no mutation): For most pediatric patients with wild-type GIST complete surgical resection of localized disease is recommended as long as it can be accomplished without significant morbidity (i.e., gastrectomy). When feasible, wedge resections are an acceptable surgical option. Since lymph node involvement is relatively common in younger patients, searching for overt or occult nodal involvement should be encouraged. Given the indolent course of the disease in pediatric patients, it is reasonable to withhold extensive and mutilative surgeries and to carefully observe children with locally recurrent or unresectable asymptomatic disease.[115,120]

    A randomized clinical trial in adults demonstrated that administration of adjuvant imatinib mesylate improved event-free survival in adult patients with GIST but this benefit was restricted to those with KIT exon 11 and PDGFR mutations, and thus the use of this agent in the adjuvant setting in pediatric wild-type GIST cannot be recommended.[135] Responses to imatinib and sunitinib in pediatric patients with wild-type GIST are uncommon and consist mainly of disease stabilization.[120,136,137] In a review of ten patients who were treated with imatinib mesylate, one patient experienced a partial response and three patients had stable disease.[120] In another study, the clinical activity of sunitinib in six children with imatinib-resistant GIST was reported as one partial response and five stable disease.[138]

References:

  1. Ribeiro RC, Figueiredo B: Childhood adrenocortical tumours. Eur J Cancer 40 (8): 1117-26, 2004.
  2. Wooten MD, King DK: Adrenal cortical carcinoma. Epidemiology and treatment with mitotane and a review of the literature. Cancer 72 (11): 3145-55, 1993.
  3. Michalkiewicz E, Sandrini R, Figueiredo B, et al.: Clinical and outcome characteristics of children with adrenocortical tumors: a report from the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry. J Clin Oncol 22 (5): 838-45, 2004.
  4. Berstein L, Gurney JG: Carcinomas and other malignant epithelial neoplasms. In: Ries LA, Smith MA, Gurney JG, et al., eds.: Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, 1999. NIH Pub.No. 99-4649., Chapter 11, pp 139-148. Also available online. Last accessed April 04, 2013.
  5. Figueiredo BC, Sandrini R, Zambetti GP, et al.: Penetrance of adrenocortical tumours associated with the germline TP53 R337H mutation. J Med Genet 43 (1): 91-6, 2006.
  6. Pianovski MA, Maluf EM, de Carvalho DS, et al.: Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil. Pediatr Blood Cancer 47 (1): 56-60, 2006.
  7. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, et al.: Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45 (3): 265-73, 2005.
  8. Ribeiro RC, Sandrini Neto RS, Schell MJ, et al.: Adrenocortical carcinoma in children: a study of 40 cases. J Clin Oncol 8 (1): 67-74, 1990.
  9. Wieneke JA, Thompson LD, Heffess CS: Adrenal cortical neoplasms in the pediatric population: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 83 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 27 (7): 867-81, 2003.
  10. Sandrini R, Ribeiro RC, DeLacerda L: Childhood adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82 (7): 2027-31, 1997.
  11. Bugg MF, Ribeiro RC, Roberson PK, et al.: Correlation of pathologic features with clinical outcome in pediatric adrenocortical neoplasia. A study of a Brazilian population. Brazilian Group for Treatment of Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 101 (5): 625-9, 1994.
  12. Michalkiewicz EL, Sandrini R, Bugg MF, et al.: Clinical characteristics of small functioning adrenocortical tumors in children. Med Pediatr Oncol 28 (3): 175-8, 1997.
  13. Ribeiro RC, Sandrini F, Figueiredo B, et al.: An inherited p53 mutation that contributes in a tissue-specific manner to pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (16): 9330-5, 2001.
  14. Hoyme HE, Seaver LH, Jones KL, et al.: Isolated hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy): report of a prospective multicenter study of the incidence of neoplasia and review. Am J Med Genet 79 (4): 274-8, 1998.
  15. Wijnen M, Alders M, Zwaan CM, et al.: KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation: a novel disguised genetic predisposition in sporadic pediatric adrenocortical tumors? Pediatr Blood Cancer 59 (3): 565-6, 2012.
  16. Steenman M, Westerveld A, Mannens M: Genetics of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome-associated tumors: common genetic pathways. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 28 (1): 1-13, 2000.
  17. El Wakil A, Doghman M, Latre De Late P, et al.: Genetics and genomics of childhood adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol 336 (1-2): 169-73, 2011.
  18. Figueiredo BC, Stratakis CA, Sandrini R, et al.: Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of adrenocortical tumors of childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84 (3): 1116-21, 1999.
  19. Weiss LM: Comparative histologic study of 43 metastasizing and nonmetastasizing adrenocortical tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 8 (3): 163-9, 1984.
  20. van Slooten H, Schaberg A, Smeenk D, et al.: Morphologic characteristics of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer 55 (4): 766-73, 1985.
  21. Stojadinovic A, Ghossein RA, Hoos A, et al.: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical, morphologic, and molecular characterization. J Clin Oncol 20 (4): 941-50, 2002.
  22. Almeida MQ, Fragoso MC, Lotfi CF, et al.: Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93 (9): 3524-31, 2008.
  23. West AN, Neale GA, Pounds S, et al.: Gene expression profiling of childhood adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res 67 (2): 600-8, 2007.
  24. Hanna AM, Pham TH, Askegard-Giesmann JR, et al.: Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg 43 (5): 843-9, 2008.
  25. Klein JD, Turner CG, Gray FL, et al.: Adrenal cortical tumors in children: factors associated with poor outcome. J Pediatr Surg 46 (6): 1201-7, 2011.
  26. Zancanella P, Pianovski MA, Oliveira BH, et al.: Mitotane associated with cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma: mitotane monitoring and tumor regression. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 28 (8): 513-24, 2006.
  27. Hovi L, Wikström S, Vettenranta K, et al.: Adrenocortical carcinoma in children: a role for etoposide and cisplatin adjuvant therapy? Preliminary report. Med Pediatr Oncol 40 (5): 324-6, 2003.
  28. Stewart JN, Flageole H, Kavan P: A surgical approach to adrenocortical tumors in children: the mainstay of treatment. J Pediatr Surg 39 (5): 759-63, 2004.
  29. Kardar AH: Rupture of adrenal carcinoma after biopsy. J Urol 166 (3): 984, 2001.
  30. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, et al.: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery 138 (6): 1078-85; discussion 1085-6, 2005.
  31. Terzolo M, Angeli A, Fassnacht M, et al.: Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med 356 (23): 2372-80, 2007.
  32. Driver CP, Birch J, Gough DC, et al.: Adrenal cortical tumors in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 15 (6): 527-32, 1998 Nov-Dec.
  33. Curtis JL, Burns RC, Wang L, et al.: Primary gastric tumors of infancy and childhood: 54-year experience at a single institution. J Pediatr Surg 43 (8): 1487-93, 2008.
  34. Subbiah V, Varadhachary G, Herzog CE, et al.: Gastric adenocarcinoma in children and adolescents. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (3): 524-7, 2011.
  35. American Cancer Society.: Cancer Facts and Figures-2000. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2000.
  36. Rowland M, Drumm B: Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 7 (5): 553-9, 1995.
  37. Ajani JA: Current status of therapy for advanced gastric carcinoma. Oncology (Huntingt) 12 (8 Suppl 6): 99-102, 1998.
  38. Chung EM, Travis MD, Conran RM: Pancreatic tumors in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 26 (4): 1211-38, 2006 Jul-Aug.
  39. Perez EA, Gutierrez JC, Koniaris LG, et al.: Malignant pancreatic tumors: incidence and outcome in 58 pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg 44 (1): 197-203, 2009.
  40. Dall'igna P, Cecchetto G, Bisogno G, et al.: Pancreatic tumors in children and adolescents: the Italian TREP project experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54 (5): 675-80, 2010.
  41. Brecht IB, Schneider DT, Klöppel G, et al.: Malignant pancreatic tumors in children and young adults: evaluation of 228 patients identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database. Klin Padiatr 223 (6): 341-5, 2011.
  42. Vossen S, Goretzki PE, Goebel U, et al.: Therapeutic management of rare malignant pancreatic tumors in children. World J Surg 22 (8): 879-82, 1998.
  43. Shorter NA, Glick RD, Klimstra DS, et al.: Malignant pancreatic tumors in childhood and adolescence: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience, 1967 to present. J Pediatr Surg 37 (6): 887-92, 2002.
  44. Raffel A, Cupisti K, Krausch M, et al.: Therapeutic strategy of papillary cystic and solid neoplasm (PCSN): a rare non-endocrine tumor of the pancreas in children. Surg Oncol 13 (1): 1-6, 2004.
  45. Ellerkamp V, Warmann SW, Vorwerk P, et al.: Exocrine pancreatic tumors in childhood in Germany. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58 (3): 366-71, 2012.
  46. van den Akker M, Angelini P, Taylor G, et al.: Malignant pancreatic tumors in children: a single-institution series. J Pediatr Surg 47 (4): 681-7, 2012.
  47. Movahedi-Lankarani S, Hruban RH, Westra WH, et al.: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pancreas: a report of seven cases of a rare neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol 26 (8): 1040-7, 2002.
  48. Muguerza R, Rodriguez A, Formigo E, et al.: Pancreatoblastoma associated with incomplete Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg 40 (8): 1341-4, 2005.
  49. Kletter GB, Sweetser DA, Wallace SF, et al.: Adrenocorticotropin-secreting pancreatoblastoma. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 20 (5): 639-42, 2007.
  50. Karachaliou F, Vlachopapadopoulou E, Kaldrymidis P, et al.: Malignant insulinoma in childhood. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 19 (5): 757-60, 2006.
  51. Schwartz MZ: Unusual peptide-secreting tumors in adolescents and children. Semin Pediatr Surg 6 (3): 141-6, 1997.
  52. Murakami T, Ueki K, Kawakami H, et al.: Pancreatoblastoma: case report and review of treatment in the literature. Med Pediatr Oncol 27 (3): 193-7, 1996.
  53. Imamura A, Nakagawa A, Okuno M, et al.: Pancreatoblastoma in an adolescent girl: case report and review of 26 Japanese cases. Eur J Surg 164 (4): 309-12, 1998.
  54. Dhebri AR, Connor S, Campbell F, et al.: Diagnosis, treatment and outcome of pancreatoblastoma. Pancreatology 4 (5): 441-51; discussion 452-3, 2004.
  55. Bendell JC, Lauwers GY, Willett C, et al.: Pancreatoblastoma in a teenage patient. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 4 (2): 150-3; discussion 154, 2006.
  56. Bien E, Godzinski J, Dall'igna P, et al.: Pancreatoblastoma: a report from the European cooperative study group for paediatric rare tumours (EXPeRT). Eur J Cancer 47 (15): 2347-52, 2011.
  57. Papavramidis T, Papavramidis S: Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas: review of 718 patients reported in English literature. J Am Coll Surg 200 (6): 965-72, 2005.
  58. Choi SH, Kim SM, Oh JT, et al.: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a multicenter study of 23 pediatric cases. J Pediatr Surg 41 (12): 1992-5, 2006.
  59. Nakahara K, Kobayashi G, Fujita N, et al.: Solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas showing a remarkable reduction in size over the 10-year follow-up period. Intern Med 47 (14): 1335-9, 2008.
  60. Soloni P, Cecchetto G, Dall'igna P, et al.: Management of unresectable solid papillary cystic tumor of the pancreas. A case report and literature review. J Pediatr Surg 45 (5): e1-6, 2010.
  61. Moholkar S, Sebire NJ, Roebuck DJ: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas: radiological-pathological correlation. Pediatr Radiol 35 (8): 819-22, 2005.
  62. Peng CH, Chen DF, Zhou GW, et al.: The solid-pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas: the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment. J Surg Res 131 (2): 276-82, 2006.
  63. Park M, Koh KN, Kim BE, et al.: Pancreatic neoplasms in childhood and adolescence. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 33 (4): 295-300, 2011.
  64. Lee SE, Jang JY, Hwang DW, et al.: Clinical features and outcome of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm: differences between adults and children. Arch Surg 143 (12): 1218-21, 2008.
  65. Speer AL, Barthel ER, Patel MM, et al.: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a single-institution 20-year series of pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg 47 (6): 1217-22, 2012.
  66. Yu DC, Kozakewich HP, Perez-Atayde AR, et al.: Childhood pancreatic tumors: a single institution experience. J Pediatr Surg 44 (12): 2267-72, 2009.
  67. Défachelles AS, Martin De Lassalle E, Boutard P, et al.: Pancreatoblastoma in childhood: clinical course and therapeutic management of seven patients. Med Pediatr Oncol 37 (1): 47-52, 2001.
  68. Yonekura T, Kosumi T, Hokim M, et al.: Aggressive surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment of advanced pancreatoblastoma associated with tumor thrombus in portal vein. J Pediatr Surg 41 (3): 596-8, 2006.
  69. Lee YJ, Hah JO: Long-term survival of pancreatoblastoma in children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 29 (12): 845-7, 2007.
  70. Saab R, Furman WL: Epidemiology and management options for colorectal cancer in children. Paediatr Drugs 10 (3): 177-92, 2008.
  71. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Massimino M, et al.: Peculiar features and tailored management of adult cancers occurring in pediatric age. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 10 (11): 1837-51, 2010.
  72. Sharma AK, Gupta CR: Colorectal cancer in children: case report and review of literature. Trop Gastroenterol 22 (1): 36-9, 2001 Jan-Mar.
  73. Hill DA, Furman WL, Billups CA, et al.: Colorectal carcinoma in childhood and adolescence: a clinicopathologic review. J Clin Oncol 25 (36): 5808-14, 2007.
  74. Andersson A, Bergdahl L: Carcinoma of the colon in children: a report of six new cases and a review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg 11 (6): 967-71, 1976.
  75. Chantada GL, Perelli VB, Lombardi MG, et al.: Colorectal carcinoma in children, adolescents, and young adults. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27 (1): 39-41, 2005.
  76. Durno C, Aronson M, Bapat B, et al.: Family history and molecular features of children, adolescents, and young adults with colorectal carcinoma. Gut 54 (8): 1146-50, 2005.
  77. Ferrari A, Rognone A, Casanova M, et al.: Colorectal carcinoma in children and adolescents: the experience of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan, Italy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (3): 588-93, 2008.
  78. Karnak I, Ciftci AO, Senocak ME, et al.: Colorectal carcinoma in children. J Pediatr Surg 34 (10): 1499-504, 1999.
  79. LaQuaglia MP, Heller G, Filippa DA, et al.: Prognostic factors and outcome in patients 21 years and under with colorectal carcinoma. J Pediatr Surg 27 (8): 1085-9; discussion 1089-90, 1992.
  80. MIDDELKAMP JN, HAFFNER H: CARCINOMA OF THE COLON IN CHILDREN. Pediatrics 32: 558-71, 1963.
  81. Radhakrishnan CN, Bruce J: Colorectal cancers in children without any predisposing factors. A report of eight cases and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr Surg 13 (1): 66-8, 2003.
  82. Taguchi T, Suita S, Hirata Y, et al.: Carcinoma of the colon in children: a case report and review of 41 Japanese cases. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 12 (3): 394-9, 1991.
  83. Pratt CB, Rao BN, Merchant TE, et al.: Treatment of colorectal carcinoma in adolescents and young adults with surgery, 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/interferon-alpha 2a and radiation therapy. Med Pediatr Oncol 32 (6): 459-60, 1999.
  84. Sultan I, Rodriguez-Galindo C, El-Taani H, et al.: Distinct features of colorectal cancer in children and adolescents: a population-based study of 159 cases. Cancer 116 (3): 758-65, 2010.
  85. Tricoli JV, Seibel NL, Blair DG, et al.: Unique characteristics of adolescent and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast cancer, and colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 103 (8): 628-35, 2011.
  86. Kauffman WM, Jenkins JJ 3rd, Helton K, et al.: Imaging features of ovarian metastases from colonic adenocarcinoma in adolescents. Pediatr Radiol 25 (4): 286-8, 1995.
  87. Bleyer A, Barr R, Hayes-Lattin B, et al.: The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults. Nat Rev Cancer 8 (4): 288-98, 2008.
  88. Gatalica Z, Torlakovic E: Pathology of the hereditary colorectal carcinoma. Fam Cancer 7 (1): 15-26, 2008.
  89. O'Connell JB, Maggard MA, Livingston EH, et al.: Colorectal cancer in the young. Am J Surg 187 (3): 343-8, 2004.
  90. Goel A, Nagasaka T, Spiegel J, et al.: Low frequency of Lynch syndrome among young patients with non-familial colorectal cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 8 (11): 966-71, 2010.
  91. Erdman SH: Pediatric adenomatous polyposis syndromes: an update. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 9 (3): 237-44, 2007.
  92. Turcot J, Despres JP, St. Pierre F: Malignant tumors of the central nervous system associated with familial polyposis of the colon: Report of two cases. Dis Colon Rectum 2: 465-468, 1959.
  93. Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, et al.: Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N Engl J Med 319 (9): 525-32, 1988.
  94. Lynch PM, Ayers GD, Hawk E, et al.: The safety and efficacy of celecoxib in children with familial adenomatous polyposis. Am J Gastroenterol 105 (6): 1437-43, 2010.
  95. Pratt CB, Jane JA: Multiple colorectal carcinomas, polyposis coli, and neurofibromatosis, followed by multiple glioblastoma multiforme. J Natl Cancer Inst 83 (12): 880-1, 1991.
  96. Pappo A, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Furman W: Management of infrequent cancers of childhood. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, eds.: Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2011, pp 1098-1123.
  97. Postgate A, Hyer W, Phillips R, et al.: Feasibility of video capsule endoscopy in the management of children with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a blinded comparison with barium enterography for the detection of small bowel polyps. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 49 (4): 417-23, 2009.
  98. Madajewicz S, Petrelli N, Rustum YM, et al.: Phase I-II trial of high-dose calcium leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil in advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 44 (10): 4667-9, 1984.
  99. Wolmark N, Bryant J, Smith R, et al.: Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin with or without interferon alfa-2a in colon carcinoma: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol C-05. J Natl Cancer Inst 90 (23): 1810-6, 1998.
  100. Blanke CD, Bot BM, Thomas DM, et al.: Impact of young age on treatment efficacy and safety in advanced colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of patients from nine first-line phase III chemotherapy trials. J Clin Oncol 29 (20): 2781-6, 2011.
  101. Modlin IM, Sandor A: An analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumors. Cancer 79 (4): 813-29, 1997.
  102. Deans GT, Spence RA: Neoplastic lesions of the appendix. Br J Surg 82 (3): 299-306, 1995.
  103. Doede T, Foss HD, Waldschmidt J: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children--epidemiology, clinical aspects and procedure. Eur J Pediatr Surg 10 (6): 372-7, 2000.
  104. Quaedvlieg PF, Visser O, Lamers CB, et al.: Epidemiology and survival in patients with carcinoid disease in The Netherlands. An epidemiological study with 2391 patients. Ann Oncol 12 (9): 1295-300, 2001.
  105. Broaddus RR, Herzog CE, Hicks MJ: Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinoma) presenting at extra-appendiceal sites in childhood and adolescence. Arch Pathol Lab Med 127 (9): 1200-3, 2003.
  106. Foley DS, Sunil I, Debski R, et al.: Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in children. J Pediatr Surg 43 (11): e25-8, 2008.
  107. Tormey WP, FitzGerald RJ: The clinical and laboratory correlates of an increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Postgrad Med J 71 (839): 542-5, 1995.
  108. Pelizzo G, La Riccia A, Bouvier R, et al.: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children. Pediatr Surg Int 17 (5-6): 399-402, 2001.
  109. Hatzipantelis E, Panagopoulou P, Sidi-Fragandrea V, et al.: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 51 (5): 622-5, 2010.
  110. Dall'Igna P, Ferrari A, Luzzatto C, et al.: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40 (2): 216-9, 2005.
  111. Cernaianu G, Tannapfel A, Nounla J, et al.: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastasis in a child: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg 45 (11): e1-5, 2010.
  112. Delaunoit T, Rubin J, Neczyporenko F, et al.: Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Mayo Clin Proc 80 (4): 502-6, 2005.
  113. More J, Young J, Reznik Y, et al.: Ectopic ACTH syndrome in children and adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96 (5): 1213-22, 2011.
  114. Corless CL, Fletcher JA, Heinrich MC: Biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Clin Oncol 22 (18): 3813-25, 2004.
  115. Pappo AS, Janeway K, Laquaglia M, et al.: Special considerations in pediatric gastrointestinal tumors. J Surg Oncol 104 (8): 928-32, 2011.
  116. Prakash S, Sarran L, Socci N, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in children and young adults: a clinicopathologic, molecular, and genomic study of 15 cases and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27 (4): 179-87, 2005.
  117. Miettinen M, Lasota J, Sobin LH: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach in children and young adults: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 44 cases with long-term follow-up and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 29 (10): 1373-81, 2005.
  118. Benesch M, Wardelmann E, Ferrari A, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in children and adolescents: A comprehensive review of the current literature. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (7): 1171-9, 2009.
  119. Cypriano MS, Jenkins JJ, Pappo AS, et al.: Pediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumors and leiomyosarcoma. Cancer 101 (1): 39-50, 2004.
  120. Pappo AS, Janeway KA: Pediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 23 (1): 15-34, vii, 2009.
  121. Benesch M, Leuschner I, Wardelmann E, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours in children and young adults: a clinicopathologic series with long-term follow-up from the database of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS). Eur J Cancer 47 (11): 1692-8, 2011.
  122. Otto C, Agaimy A, Braun A, et al.: Multifocal gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with lymph node metastases in children and young adults: a comparative clinical and histomorphological study of three cases including a new case of Carney triad. Diagn Pathol 6: 52, 2011.
  123. Carney JA: Carney triad: a syndrome featuring paraganglionic, adrenocortical, and possibly other endocrine tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94 (10): 3656-62, 2009.
  124. Pasini B, McWhinney SR, Bei T, et al.: Clinical and molecular genetics of patients with the Carney-Stratakis syndrome and germline mutations of the genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD. Eur J Hum Genet 16 (1): 79-88, 2008.
  125. Miettinen M, Wang ZF, Sarlomo-Rikala M, et al.: Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 66 gastric GISTs with predilection to young age. Am J Surg Pathol 35 (11): 1712-21, 2011.
  126. Miettinen M, Fetsch JF, Sobin LH, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis 1: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 45 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 30 (1): 90-6, 2006.
  127. Li FP, Fletcher JA, Heinrich MC, et al.: Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumor syndrome: phenotypic and molecular features in a kindred. J Clin Oncol 23 (12): 2735-43, 2005.
  128. Miettinen M, Lasota J: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: review on morphology, molecular pathology, prognosis, and differential diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130 (10): 1466-78, 2006.
  129. Agaram NP, Laquaglia MP, Ustun B, et al.: Molecular characterization of pediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clin Cancer Res 14 (10): 3204-15, 2008.
  130. Janeway KA, Liegl B, Harlow A, et al.: Pediatric KIT wild-type and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors share KIT activation but not mechanisms of genetic progression with adult gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Cancer Res 67 (19): 9084-8, 2007.
  131. Tarn C, Rink L, Merkel E, et al.: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor is a potential therapeutic target for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (24): 8387-92, 2008. Also available online. Last accessed April 04, 2013.
  132. Janeway KA, Kim SY, Lodish M, et al.: Defects in succinate dehydrogenase in gastrointestinal stromal tumors lacking KIT and PDGFRA mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108 (1): 314-8, 2011.
  133. Demetri GD, Benjamin RS, Blanke CD, et al.: NCCN Task Force report: management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)--update of the NCCN clinical practice guidelines. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 5 (Suppl 2): S1-29; quiz S30, 2007.
  134. Janeway KA, Weldon CB: Pediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Semin Pediatr Surg 21 (1): 31-43, 2012.
  135. Dematteo RP, Ballman KV, Antonescu CR, et al.: Adjuvant imatinib mesylate after resection of localised, primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 373 (9669): 1097-104, 2009.
  136. Demetri GD, van Oosterom AT, Garrett CR, et al.: Efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after failure of imatinib: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 368 (9544): 1329-38, 2006.
  137. Demetri GD, von Mehren M, Blanke CD, et al.: Efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. N Engl J Med 347 (7): 472-80, 2002.
  138. Janeway KA, Albritton KH, Van Den Abbeele AD, et al.: Sunitinib treatment in pediatric patients with advanced GIST following failure of imatinib. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (7): 767-71, 2009.
1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9
1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Building a Support System
Blog
cancer fighting foods
SLIDESHOW
 
precancerous lesions slideshow
SLIDESHOW
quit smoking tips
SLIDESHOW
 
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
Blog
what is your cancer risk
HEALTH CHECK
 
colorectal cancer treatment advances
Video
breast cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
prostate cancer overview
SLIDESHOW
lung cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
Actor Michael Douglas
Article