Caregivers usually define the onset of caregiving as the time of the patient's first cancer diagnosis; ideally, interventions for the caregiver should begin then. However, no validated model exists that can be applied to understanding the family caregiver experience, and few settings perform routine caregiver assessment—making the job of oncology practitioners more difficult, as they have no suitable framework for guiding their care decisions.
Generally speaking, interventions for the caregiver...
Added text to state that recent reports suggest that positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) may aid in staging esthesioneuroblastoma (cited Broski et al. as reference 30).
Added Redlich et al. as reference 67 and Fu et al. as reference 128.
Added Venkatramani et al. as reference 56 and Yalçin et al. as reference 68.
Revised text to state that the most common primary benign heart tumors in children are rhabdomyomas, myxomas, teratomas, and fibromas (cited Becker and Padalino et al. as references 81 and 82, respectively). Also revised text to state that other benign tumors include histiocytoid cardiomyopathy tumors, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas (i.e., tumors of the nerves that innervate the muscles).
Added text to state that hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1 gene has also been associated with the development of adrenocortical tumors in patients without the phenotypic features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (cited Wijnen et al. as reference 15).
Added Speer et al. as reference 65 and level of evidence 3iiDiii.
Added text to state that in contrast to juvenile granulosa cell tumors, a recent study suggested that Sertoli-Leydig tumors with abdominal spillage should be treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Other Rare Childhood Cancers
Added Burnichon et al. as reference 45.
Revised Table 7 to state that MAX germline mutations account for less than 2% of all paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas, and the mean age at presentation is 34 years.
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
February 25, 2014
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