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Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Genital / Urinary Tumors

Genital/urinary tumors include carcinoma of the bladder, non-germ cell testicular cancer, non-germ cell ovarian cancer, and carcinoma of the cervix and vagina. The prognosis, diagnosis, classification, and treatment of these genital/urinary tumors are discussed below. It must be emphasized that these tumors are seen very infrequently in patients younger than 15 years, and most of the evidence is derived from case series.

Carcinoma of the Bladder

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About PDQ

PDQ is a comprehensive cancer database available on NCI's Web site. PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health, the federal government's focal point for biomedical research. PDQ contains cancer information summaries. The PDQ database contains summaries...

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Incidence, risk factors, and clinical presentation

Carcinoma of the bladder is extremely rare in children. The most common carcinoma to involve the bladder is papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, which generally presents with hematuria.[1,2]

Bladder cancer in adolescents may develop as a consequence of alkylating-agent chemotherapy given for other childhood tumors or leukemia.[3,4] The association between cyclophosphamide and bladder cancer is the only established relationship between a specific anticancer drug and a solid tumor.[3]

Prognosis and treatment

In contrast to adults, most pediatric bladder carcinomas are low grade, superficial, and have a good prognosis following transurethral resection.[2,5,6,7,8] Squamous cell carcinoma and more aggressive carcinomas, however, have been reported and may require a more aggressive surgical approach.[9,10,11]

(Refer to the PDQ summary on adult Bladder Cancer Treatment for more information.)

Testicular Cancer (Non-Germ Cell)

Incidence

Testicular tumors are very rare in young boys and account for an incidence of 1% to 2% of all childhood tumors.[12,13] The most common testicular tumors are benign teratomas followed by malignant nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors for more information.) Non–germ cell tumors such as sex cord–stromal tumors are exceedingly rare in prepubertal boys. In a small series, gonadal stromal tumors accounted for 8% to 13% of pediatric testicular tumors.[14,15] In newborns and infants, juvenile granulosa cell tumors are the most common stromal cell tumor.[16] In older males, Leydig cell tumors are more common. Stromal cell tumors have been described as benign in young boys.[17,18,19]

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