Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Vaginal Cancer
The treatments listed below have not been directly compared in randomized trials.[Level of evidence 3iiiD] As a result of differences in patient selection, local expertise, and staging criteria, it is difficult to determine whether there are differences in disease control rates. Radiation therapy is the most common treatment for patients with stage II vaginal cancer.
One study  of 248 caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients investigated the presence of predeath complicated grief and its correlates. Results revealed the following variables associated with higher levels of predeath complicated grief:
Age younger than 60 years.
Lack of perceived available social support.
History of depression and current depression.
Severity of stressful life events.
Of these correlates, pessimistic thinking and...
Combination of brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to deliver a combined dose of 70 Gy to 80 Gy to the primary tumor volume.[1,2,3,4] For lesions of the lower third of the vagina, elective radiation therapy of 45 Gy to 50 Gy is given to the pelvic and/or inguinal lymph nodes.[1,5]
Radical surgery (radical vaginectomy or pelvic exenteration) with or without radiation therapy.[6,7,8]
Standard treatment options:
Combination of brachytherapy and EBRT to deliver a combined dose of 70 Gy to 80 Gy to the primary tumor. For lesions of the lower third of the vagina, elective radiation therapy of 45 Gy to 50 Gy is given to the pelvic and/or inguinal lymph nodes.[1,5,9]
Radical surgery (radical vaginectomy or pelvic exenteration) with or without radiation therapy.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II vaginal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Perez CA, Camel HM, Galakatos AE, et al.: Definitive irradiation in carcinoma of the vagina: long-term evaluation of results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15 (6): 1283-90, 1988.
Frank SJ, Jhingran A, Levenback C, et al.: Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62 (1): 138-47, 2005.
Tran PT, Su Z, Lee P, et al.: Prognostic factors for outcomes and complications for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with radiation. Gynecol Oncol 105 (3): 641-9, 2007.
Lian J, Dundas G, Carlone M, et al.: Twenty-year review of radiotherapy for vaginal cancer: an institutional experience. Gynecol Oncol 111 (2): 298-306, 2008.
Andersen ES: Primary carcinoma of the vagina: a study of 29 cases. Gynecol Oncol 33 (3): 317-20, 1989.
Rubin SC, Young J, Mikuta JJ: Squamous carcinoma of the vagina: treatment, complications, and long-term follow-up. Gynecol Oncol 20 (3): 346-53, 1985.
Stock RG, Chen AS, Seski J: A 30-year experience in the management of primary carcinoma of the vagina: analysis of prognostic factors and treatment modalities. Gynecol Oncol 56 (1): 45-52, 1995.
Tjalma WA, Monaghan JM, de Barros Lopes A, et al.: The role of surgery in invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol 81 (3): 360-5, 2001.
Chyle V, Zagars GK, Wheeler JA, et al.: Definitive radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina: outcome and prognostic factors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 35 (5): 891-905, 1996.