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Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

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Having certain conditions may be associated with renal cell carcinoma.

Renal cell carcinoma may be related to the following conditions:

  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease (an inherited condition that causes abnormal growth of blood vessels). Children with Von Hippel-Lindau disease should be checked yearly for renal cell carcinoma with an ultrasound of the abdomen or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) beginning at age 8 to 11 years.
  • Tuberous sclerosis (an inherited disease marked by noncancerous fatty cysts in the kidney).
  • Familial renal cell carcinoma (an inherited condition that occurs when certain changes in the genes that cause kidney cancer are passed down from the parent to the child).
  • Renal medullary carcinoma (a rare kidney cancer that grows and spreads quickly).
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis (a disorder that increases the risk of having cancer of the kidney, skin, and uterus).
  • Second cancers (renal cell carcinoma may be found in patients several years after treatment for neuroblastoma).

Possible signs of Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors include a lump in the abdomen and blood in the urine.

These and other symptoms may be caused by kidney tumors. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Check with a doctor if your child has any of the following problems:

  • A lump, swelling, or pain in the abdomen.
  • Blood in the urine.
  • Fever for no known reason.

Tests that examine the kidney and the blood are used to detect (find) Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Complete blood count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:
    • The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
    • The amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.
    • The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood cells.
  • Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.
  • Liver function test: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by the liver. A higher than normal amount of a substance can be a sign that the liver is not working as it should.
  • Renal function test: A procedure in which blood or urine samples are checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood or urine by the kidneys. A higher or lower than normal amount of a substance can be a sign that the kidneys are not working as they should.
  • Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, blood, and bacteria.
  • Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. An ultrasound of the abdomen is done to diagnose a kidney tumor.
  • CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
  • Abdominal x-ray: An x-ray of the organs inside the abdomen. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
  • Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. Whether a biopsy is done depends on one or more of the following:
    • Cancer is in one or both kidneys.
    • Imaging tests clearly show the cancer.
    • The patient is on a clinical trial.
    A biopsy may be done before treatment, after surgery to remove the tumor, or after chemotherapy to shrink the tumor.
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