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Cancer Health Center

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Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors


Children with aniridia and a certain gene change are screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they are 8 years old. An ultrasound test of the abdomen is used for screening.

Some children develop Wilms tumor in both kidneys. These often appear when Wilms tumor is first diagnosed, but Wilms tumor may also occur in the second kidney after the child is successfully treated for Wilms tumor in one kidney. A second tumor is much more likely to develop in the other kidney when a child's first Wilms tumor is diagnosed before they are one year old or when embryonic cells remain in the kidney. Children with an increased risk of a second Wilms tumor in the other kidney should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months for two to six years. An ultrasound test of the abdomen may be used for screening.

Having certain conditions may increase the risk of renal cell cancer.

Renal cell cancer may be related to the following conditions:

  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease (an inherited condition that causes abnormal growth of blood vessels). Children with Von Hippel-Lindau disease should be checked yearly for renal cell cancer with an ultrasound of the abdomen or an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) beginning at age 8 to 11 years.
  • Tuberous sclerosis (an inherited disease marked by noncancerous fatty cysts in the kidney).
  • Familial renal cell cancer (an inherited condition that occurs when certain changes in the genes that cause kidney cancer are passed down from the parent to the child).
  • Renal medullary cancer (a rare kidney cancer that grows and spreads quickly).
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis (an inherited disorder that increases the risk of having cancer of the kidney, skin, and uterus).
  • Second cancers (renal cell cancer may occur several years after treatment for neuroblastoma).

Treatment for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors may include genetic counseling.

Genetic counseling (a discussion with a trained professional about genetic diseases and whether genetic testing is needed) may be needed if the child has one of the following syndromes or conditions:

  • A genetic syndrome or condition that increases the risk of Wilms tumor.
  • An inherited condition that increases the risk of renal cell cancer.
  • Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney.
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