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Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview


Newborns and all infants younger than 12 months require a reduction in chemotherapy doses to 50% of those given to older children.[32] This reduction diminishes toxic effects reported in children in this age group enrolled in NWTS studies while maintaining an excellent overall outcome.[33] Liver function tests in children with Wilms tumor should be monitored closely during the early course of therapy based on hepatic toxic effects (sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, previously called veno-occlusive disease) reported in those patients.[34,35] Dactinomycin should not be administered during radiation therapy. Patients who develop renal failure while on therapy can continue receiving chemotherapy with vincristine, dactinomycin, and doxorubicin. Vincristine and doxorubicin can be given at full doses; however, dactinomycin is associated with severe neutropenia. Reductions in dosing these agents may not be necessary, but accurate pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic studies are needed while the patient is receiving the therapy.[36,37]

Children treated for Wilms tumor are at increased risk for developing second malignant neoplasms.[38] Congestive heart failure has been shown to be a risk in children treated with doxorubicin with the degree of risk influenced by cumulative doxorubicin dose, radiation to the heart, and gender (females are at increased risk).[39] Efforts, therefore, have been aimed toward reducing the intensity of therapy when possible. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for a full discussion of the late effects of cancer treatment in children and adolescents.)

As mentioned previously, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, neuroepithelial tumor of the kidney, and cystic partially-differentiated nephroblastoma are childhood renal tumors unrelated to Wilms tumor. Because of their renal location, they have been treated on clinical trials developed by the NWTS Group. The approach to their treatment, however, is distinctive from that of Wilms tumor, and requires timely and accurate diagnosis by a pathologist and pediatric oncologist with experience with these types of renal tumors.[40]


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Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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