After one child died and 25 people were sickened by a 1998 outbreak of an E. coli strain caused by feces-contaminated water at a park near Atlanta, public health officials and public pool operators were justifiably concerned. The conditions pointed up a growing hazard -- and health officials have since acknowledged that even pool operators with the best intentions, pool maintenance, and response plans can't completely prevent the spread of infectious diseases through water contaminated by germ-carrying feces.
"There's still a lot of education that needs to go on with the public," says Doug Brenner, director of an award-winning aquatics program in Portland, Ore. Swimmers -- especially those with small children -- must practice good hygiene to prevent feces from getting in the pool.
Growing up in New York City, the actor and her three siblings, including twin brother Hunter, saw their parents struggle to put food on the table for their large family. "We were a single-income family with four kids living in New York City," she recalls. "My parents tried not to make a big deal of it, but I know it was a struggle for them."
At P.S. 41 in Greenwich Village, Scarlett and her sister and brothers were among the children receiving government-subsidized lunches every day. Even as she...
Yes, say health and safety experts. While perhaps not yet socially acceptable, talking openly about "poop in the pool" is important to the public's health. The chance of catching an infectious disease in a well-maintained swimming pool is low, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). But not all pools are properly maintained, and the CDC warns that chlorine can't kill all germs. And crowded lakes can be especially vulnerable to outbreaks of fecal-borne illness.
To protect yourself and your children, choose a swimming pool that has a reputation for being well maintained. The water should be clear, not cloudy. Recently, public pools have faced stricter water quality rules. Plus, to reduce risks, some have improved cleanliness by constantly flushing water through the pool as well as by filtration and disinfection. Ask about the pool's maintenance schedule and whether the pool has a "fecal accident response plan."
Understand that the response will vary by situation. A solid stool found in the shallow end may require only a quick scoop-up. In other cases, especially with diarrhea, a more extensive cleanup is necessary, requiring swimmers to leave the pool and more chemicals to be pumped in.
Tell your kids never to drink the water. Emphasize the importance of keeping their mouths closed even while splashing around.