The Dangers of Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
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Classic Symptoms of Whooping Cough continued...
Symptoms start to ease in the third stage of whooping cough, called the convalescent phase. Coughing fits become less frequent and eventually subside over a few weeks.
To a parent, a child’s coughing fits from pertussis can be disturbing to see. Children often cough themselves beet-red in the face. They may vomit or pass out after a spasm of coughing. Exhausted by coughing, small children can stop breathing for a few moments after a fit. Infants may stop feeding, resulting in weight loss or malnutrition. Hospitalization is often necessary in young children with pertussis.
Infants Most Vulnerable to Serious Whooping Cough
Prior to the vaccine introduced in the 1950s, whooping cough was a common cause of death in young children. Since then, serious cases of pertussis have plummeted, but haven’t disappeared. If anything, whooping cough may be on the rise, experts believe.
Between 2000 and 2006, there were 156 deaths from pertussis reported to the federal government, according to Tami Skoff, MS, an epidemiologist at the CDC National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “More than 90% of those were in children less than 1 year old,” Scoff tells WebMD. “And, fully 120 of the 156 deaths [77%] were newborns less than 1 month old.”
The vast majority of children survive whooping cough, even if unvaccinated. But Skoff tells WebMD that in children less than 1 year old, serious illness is the rule rather than the exception:
- More than half must be hospitalized
- More than half momentarily stop breathing
- One in eight develop pneumonia
- 1% have seizures
According to Keyserling, pertusssis is even more dangerous in infants under two months old:
- Nine in 10 babies are hospitalized
- 15% to 20% develop pneumonia
- 2% to 4% have seizures
- One in 100 will die from complications of pertussis
Protecting Babies From Whooping Cough With Vaccines
Babies in the U.S. are typically immunized against pertussis in a series of four injections: at 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 months old, and at 15 to 18 months. Until infants receive the third dose of pertussis vaccine at age 6 months, they’re particularly vulnerable to serious illness, experts say. Older children are given a fifth DTaP injection at 4 to 6 years old. And teens should receive a booster shot called Tdap at age 11.
“After that third dose, they have about 80% immunity,” says Skoff. And, if they become infected despite the vaccine, “the partial protection generally results in mild illness.”