It's common for infants to spit up after a meal, but frequent vomiting associated with discomfort and difficulty feeding or weight loss may be caused by GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). GERD is a condition that causes the upward movement of stomach content, including acid, into the esophagus and sometimes into or out of the mouth. Older children also can have GERD.
Most of the time, reflux in babies is due to a poorly coordinated gastrointestinal tract. Many infants with the condition are otherwise healthy; however, some infants can have problems affecting their nerves, brain, or muscles. According to the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, a child's immature digestive system is usually to blame and most infants grow out of GERD by the their first birthday.
In older children, the causes of GERD are often the same as those seen in adults. Also, an older child is at increased risk for GERD if he or she experienced it as a baby. Anything that causes the muscular valve between the stomach and esophagus (the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES) to relax, or anything that increases the pressure below the LES, can cause GERD.
Certain factors also may contribute to GERD, including obesity, overeating, eating spicy or fried foods, drinking caffeine, carbonation, and specific medications. There also appears to be an inherited component to GERD, as it is more common in some families than in others.
What Are the Symptoms of Reflux in Infants and Children?
The most common symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children are:
Frequent or recurrent vomiting
Frequent or persistent cough or wheezing
Refusing to eat or difficulty eating (choking or gagging with feeding)
Heartburn, gas, abdominal pain, or colicky behavior (frequent crying and fussiness) associated with feeding or immediately after
Regurgitation and re-swallowing
Complaining of a sour taste in their mouth, especially in the morning
Many other symptoms are sometimes blamed on gastroesophageal reflux, but much of the time, we really aren't sure whether reflux actually causes them. Other problems seen in young children and infants that may be blamed on GERD include: