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Mesenteric Lymphadenitis

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Mesenteric lymphadenitis is an inflammation of lymph nodes. The lymph nodes that become inflamed are in a membrane that attaches the intestine to the abdominal wall.

These lymph nodes are among the hundreds that help your body fight disease. They trap and destroy microscopic "invaders" like viruses or bacteria.

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Mesenteric lymphadenitis often causes abdominal pain. It is most common in children and teens.

Mesenteric Lymphadenitis Causes

Sometimes doctors can't tell the cause of mesenteric lymphadenitis. But the most common cause is infection.

Inflammatory conditions may also be linked with mesenteric lymphadenitis.

Much less often, inflamed mesenteric lymph nodes result from cancer, including:

  • Lymphoma
  • Breast cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Gastrointestinal cancer

Infections that cause mesenteric lymphadenitis may be located in one place (local) or throughout the body (systemic). The infections may be caused by:

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Parasites

Common infections that cause mesenteric lymphadenitis include:

  • Gastroenteritis. This may result from viral infections such as rotavirus or norovirus. It may also result from bacterial infections such as salmonella, staphylococcus, or streptococcus. Gastroenteritis is often misnamed stomach flu.
  • Yersinia enterocolitica. This is the most common cause of mesenteric lymphadenitis in children. This bacterium can cause gastroenteritis and other problems. Itmay "look like" other conditions. Two examples are Crohn's disease and acute appendicitis.

Other infections that cause mesenteric lymphadenitis include:

  • Direct or indirect infections related to HIV. This is the virus that can lead to AIDS.
  • Tuberculosis. This is a common bacterial infection. It usually attacks the lungs. But it can also attack other parts of the body.
  • Whipple disease. This is a systemic bacterial infection.
  • Acute terminal ileitis. This is an inflammation of the end of the small intestine. It may be due to a bacterium or Crohn’s disease.

Inflammatory conditions commonly linked to mesenteric lymphadenitis are:

  • Appendicitis, inflammation of the appendix
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • Connective tissue diseases such as lupus, sclerosis, or rheumatoid arthritis
  • Diverticulitis, inflammation of the lining of the large intestine
  • Pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas

Mesenteric Lymphadenitis Signs and Symptoms

With mesenteric lymphadenitis, an upper respiratory tract infection may occur right before any other symptoms appear. This may cause symptoms such as a sore throat.

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