A cataract is a painless, cloudy area in the lens of the eye that blocks the passage of light to the retina, the nerve layer at the back of the eye, usually causing vision problems. Cataracts are rare in babies and children. But a child may be born with them because of genetics, infection during pregnancy, or low birth weight.
The earlier cataracts are diagnosed and treated, the more likely it is that sight will be preserved or develop normally. A baby's vision develops rapidly in the first few months of life. If a cataract blocks light from entering the eye and stimulating the retina, the area of the brain used for sight does not develop properly. And lazy eye (amblyopia) occurs. Without surgery in the first few months of life, the child won't ever see well with that eye, even if he or she has surgery later in life.
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The signs of cataracts in children include the following:
The child may not look directly at or respond to faces or large, colorful objects. An infant who cannot find small objects when he or she is crawling on the floor may have cataracts.
The child may scowl, squint, or shield his or her eyes more than expected when in bright sunlight. This happens because of the glare caused by a cataract.
The child's eyes may be misaligned and not focus on the same point at the same time (strabismus).
You may see a white reflex instead of a red reflex in your child's eye. For example, in a photograph of the child, one eye may appear white whereas the other has the normal "red eye" look.
The affected eyes may have repetitive wandering movements (nystagmus). This is usually a later sign of cataracts. This sign may not develop until the infant is several months old. Removing the cataract will probably not correct all of the vision loss at this point.
If a child has a cataract in only one eye, you may not be able to tell. All children should have regular exams by a family doctor to screen for these types of cataracts.